Bitcoin white paper Bitcoin News

XUEZ

https://xuezcoin.com/ XUEZ is a community-based project, aiming to address the inherent problems plaguing Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Understanding the importance of anonymity as well as usability, XUEZ provides a 8MB block size that results in close to instantaneous transaction times.
[link]

Bullion (CBX) | Est 2013 | Masternodes Coming Soon!

Released in late June 2013, Bullion was designed primarily for the purpose of storing wealth. Bullion is the first to employ its pioneering Proof-of-Stake-Participation (PoSP) algorithm which has taken the strength of traditional proof-of-stake implementations, extreme energy efficiency, and injected revolutionary designs to configure the algorithm for maximum security and function.
[link]

@AFP: From its birth in an anonymous white paper in 2008 to growth into one of the world's most volatile and closely watched financial instruments, #bitcoin has lived through a tumultuous first 10 years https://t.co/nrs9mjZa8D By @KtrAFP #cryptocurrency https://t.co/RM1nOMN2vg

@AFP: From its birth in an anonymous white paper in 2008 to growth into one of the world's most volatile and closely watched financial instruments, #bitcoin has lived through a tumultuous first 10 years https://t.co/nrs9mjZa8D By @KtrAFP #cryptocurrency https://t.co/RM1nOMN2vg submitted by -en- to newsbotbot [link] [comments]

Bitcoin vs. Credit Card Transactions: What's the Difference?

Bitcoin vs. Credit Card Transactions: An Overview

Most people have a credit card they can use to pay for things. But some also have bitcoin at their disposal. Which one should people use, and when, to maximize their assets?

Bitcoin Transactions

Satoshi Nakamoto, the inventor of bitcoin, titled his original white paper on the subject "A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System." This description touches on the core differences between bitcoin and credit card transactions.
Bitcoin payments are analogous to wire transfers or cash transactions, where payment is "pushed" directly from one party to another, without going through another financial institution. Payment processing is executed through a private network of computers, and each transaction is recorded in a blockchain, which is public. Bitcoin is based on peer-to-peer technology and relies on the blockchain and the cryptography securing it, without any third-party oversight.
When making a bitcoin transaction, it is not necessary to provide personal identification, such as your name and address.

Credit Card Transactions

By contrast, credit card transactions entail the buyer effectively authorizing the seller to "pull" a payment from their account, passing through financial intermediaries in the process. For example, a typical Visa transaction involves four parties: the merchant, the acquirer (the financial institution that enables payments to the merchant), the issuer (the cardholder's bank), and the individual cardholder.

Key Differences

Bitcoin transactions are made using an anonymous alphanumeric address, that changes with every transaction, and a private key. Payments can also be made on mobile devices by using quick response (QR) codes.
While credits cards are stored physically in a wallet, bitcoin transactions are sent to and from electronic wallets, which can be stored on your computer, smartphone, or in the cloud.
Bitcoin transactions are irreversible and can only be refunded by the receiving party—a key difference from credit card transactions that can be canceled. This means there are no charge-backs for merchants when taking payment via bitcoin. A charge-back is the demand by a credit-card provider for a retailer to cover the loss on a fraudulent or disputed transaction.
Bitcoin merchants also save on credit card fees that can range anywhere from 0.5% to 5%, plus a 20 to 30 cent flat fee for each transaction made. Bitcoin payments can be sent and received at a very low cost or none at all, as bitcoin fees are based on the amount of data sent.
For merchants, the advantages of receiving bitcoin are obvious. Payments made using the virtual currency save substantially on processing fees and eliminate the risk of charge-backs. For shoppers, the advantages of paying with bitcoin include greater simplicity in placing the transaction, user anonymity, no interruptions from intermediaries, and very low transaction fees. (For example, your account being frozen as a result of a fraud alert).
Credit cards offer important beneficial features, such as the ability to borrow money, protection against fraud, reward points, and vastly wider acceptance among merchants. While a few major retailers, including Overstock.com (OSTK) and Newegg, have started to accept bitcoin, most have yet to make it a payment option. However, using credit cards carries the risk of incurring late fees, interest charges, foreign transaction fees, and potentially adverse effects on your credit score.
submitted by FormerSuggestion8 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake
https://preview.redd.it/b80c05tnb9e51.jpg?width=2550&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=850282c1a3962466ed44f73886dae1c8872d0f31
Submitted for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off
Baked by the pastry chefs at Offchain Labs
Please send questions or comments to [[email protected] ](mailto:[email protected])
1. Overview
We're excited to submit Arbitrum Rollup for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off. Arbitrum Rollup is the only Ethereum scaling solution that supports arbitrary smart contracts without compromising on Ethereum's security or adding points of centralization. For Reddit, this means that Arbitrum can not only scale the minting and transfer of Community Points, but it can foster a creative ecosystem built around Reddit Community Points enabling points to be used in a wide variety of third party applications. That's right -- you can have your cake and eat it too!
Arbitrum Rollup isn't just Ethereum-style. Its Layer 2 transactions are byte-for-byte identical to Ethereum, which means Ethereum users can continue to use their existing addresses and wallets, and Ethereum developers can continue to use their favorite toolchains and development environments out-of-the-box with Arbitrum. Coupling Arbitrum’s tooling-compatibility with its trustless asset interoperability, Reddit not only can scale but can onboard the entire Ethereum community at no cost by giving them the same experience they already know and love (well, certainly know).
To benchmark how Arbitrum can scale Reddit Community Points, we launched the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain. Since Arbitrum provides full Solidity support, we didn't have to rewrite the Reddit contracts or try to mimic their functionality using an unfamiliar paradigm. Nope, none of that. We launched the Reddit contracts unmodified on Arbitrum Rollup complete with support for minting and distributing points. Like every Arbitrum Rollup chain, the chain included a bridge interface in which users can transfer Community Points or any other asset between the L1 and L2 chains. Arbitrum Rollup chains also support dynamic contract loading, which would allow third-party developers to launch custom ecosystem apps that integrate with Community Points on the very same chain that runs the Reddit contracts.
1.1 Why Ethereum
Perhaps the most exciting benefit of distributing Community Points using a blockchain is the ability to seamlessly port points to other applications and use them in a wide variety of contexts. Applications may include simple transfers such as a restaurant that allows Redditors to spend points on drinks. Or it may include complex smart contracts -- such as placing Community Points as a wager for a multiparty game or as collateral in a financial contract.
The common denominator between all of the fun uses of Reddit points is that it needs a thriving ecosystem of both users and developers, and the Ethereum blockchain is perhaps the only smart contract platform with significant adoption today. While many Layer 1 blockchains boast lower cost or higher throughput than the Ethereum blockchain, more often than not, these attributes mask the reality of little usage, weaker security, or both.
Perhaps another platform with significant usage will rise in the future. But today, Ethereum captures the mindshare of the blockchain community, and for Community Points to provide the most utility, the Ethereum blockchain is the natural choice.
1.2 Why Arbitrum
While Ethereum's ecosystem is unmatched, the reality is that fees are high and capacity is too low to support the scale of Reddit Community Points. Enter Arbitrum. Arbitrum Rollup provides all of the ecosystem benefits of Ethereum, but with orders of magnitude more capacity and at a fraction of the cost of native Ethereum smart contracts. And most of all, we don't change the experience from users. They continue to use the same wallets, addresses, languages, and tools.
Arbitrum Rollup is not the only solution that can scale payments, but it is the only developed solution that can scale both payments and arbitrary smart contracts trustlessly, which means that third party users can build highly scalable add-on apps that can be used without withdrawing money from the Rollup chain. If you believe that Reddit users will want to use their Community Points in smart contracts--and we believe they will--then it makes the most sense to choose a single scaling solution that can support the entire ecosystem, eliminating friction for users.
We view being able to run smart contracts in the same scaling solution as fundamentally critical since if there's significant demand in running smart contracts from Reddit's ecosystem, this would be a load on Ethereum and would itself require a scaling solution. Moreover, having different scaling solutions for the minting/distribution/spending of points and for third party apps would be burdensome for users as they'd have to constantly shuffle their Points back and forth.
2. Arbitrum at a glance
Arbitrum Rollup has a unique value proposition as it offers a combination of features that no other scaling solution achieves. Here we highlight its core attributes.
Decentralized. Arbitrum Rollup is as decentralized as Ethereum. Unlike some other Layer 2 scaling projects, Arbitrum Rollup doesn't have any centralized components or centralized operators who can censor users or delay transactions. Even in non-custodial systems, centralized components provide a risk as the operators are generally incentivized to increase their profit by extracting rent from users often in ways that severely degrade user experience. Even if centralized operators are altruistic, centralized components are subject to hacking, coercion, and potential liability.
Massive Scaling. Arbitrum achieves order of magnitude scaling over Ethereum's L1 smart contracts. Our software currently supports 453 transactions-per-second for basic transactions (at 1616 Ethereum gas per tx). We have a lot of room left to optimize (e.g. aggregating signatures), and over the next several months capacity will increase significantly. As described in detail below, Arbitrum can easily support and surpass Reddit's anticipated initial load, and its capacity will continue to improve as Reddit's capacity needs grow.
Low cost. The cost of running Arbitrum Rollup is quite low compared to L1 Ethereum and other scaling solutions such as those based on zero-knowledge proofs. Layer 2 fees are low, fixed, and predictable and should not be overly burdensome for Reddit to cover. Nobody needs to use special equipment or high-end machines. Arbitrum requires validators, which is a permissionless role that can be run on any reasonable on-line machine. Although anybody can act as a validator, in order to protect against a “tragedy of the commons” and make sure reputable validators are participating, we support a notion of “invited validators” that are compensated for their costs. In general, users pay (low) fees to cover the invited validators’ costs, but we imagine that Reddit may cover this cost for its users. See more on the costs and validator options below.
Ethereum Developer Experience. Not only does Arbitrum support EVM smart contracts, but the developer experience is identical to that of L1 Ethereum contracts and fully compatible with Ethereum tooling. Developers can port existing Solidity apps or write new ones using their favorite and familiar toolchains (e.g. Truffle, Buidler). There are no new languages or coding paradigms to learn.
Ethereum wallet compatibility. Just as in Ethereum, Arbitrum users need only hold keys, but do not have to store any coin history or additional data to protect or access their funds. Since Arbitrum transactions are semantically identical to Ethereum L1 transactions, existing Ethereum users can use their existing Ethereum keys with their existing wallet software such as Metamask.
Token interoperability. Users can easily transfer their ETH, ERC-20 and ERC-721 tokens between Ethereum and the Arbitrum Rollup chain. As we explain in detail below, it is possible to mint tokens in L2 that can subsequently be withdrawn and recognized by the L1 token contract.
Fast finality. Transactions complete with the same finality time as Ethereum L1 (and it's possible to get faster finality guarantees by trading away trust assumptions; see the Arbitrum Rollup whitepaper for details).
Non-custodial. Arbitrum Rollup is a non-custodial scaling solution, so users control their funds/points and neither Reddit nor anyone else can ever access or revoke points held by users.
Censorship Resistant. Since it's completely decentralized, and the Arbitrum protocol guarantees progress trustlessly, Arbitrum Rollup is just as censorship-proof as Ethereum.
Block explorer. The Arbitrum Rollup block explorer allows users to view and analyze transactions on the Rollup chain.
Limitations
Although this is a bake-off, we're not going to sugar coat anything. Arbitrum Rollup, like any Optimistic Rollup protocol, does have one limitation, and that's the delay on withdrawals.
As for the concrete length of the delay, we've done a good deal of internal modeling and have blogged about this as well. Our current modeling suggests a 3-hour delay is sufficient (but as discussed in the linked post there is a tradeoff space between the length of the challenge period and the size of the validators’ deposit).
Note that this doesn't mean that the chain is delayed for three hours. Arbitrum Rollup supports pipelining of execution, which means that validators can keep building new states even while previous ones are “in the pipeline” for confirmation. As the challenge delays expire for each update, a new state will be confirmed (read more about this here).
So activity and progress on the chain are not delayed by the challenge period. The only thing that's delayed is the consummation of withdrawals. Recall though that any single honest validator knows immediately (at the speed of L1 finality) which state updates are correct and can guarantee that they will eventually be confirmed, so once a valid withdrawal has been requested on-chain, every honest party knows that the withdrawal will definitely happen. There's a natural place here for a liquidity market in which a validator (or someone who trusts a validator) can provide withdrawal loans for a small interest fee. This is a no-risk business for them as they know which withdrawals will be confirmed (and can force their confirmation trustlessly no matter what anyone else does) but are just waiting for on-chain finality.
3. The recipe: How Arbitrum Rollup works
For a description of the technical components of Arbitrum Rollup and how they interact to create a highly scalable protocol with a developer experience that is identical to Ethereum, please refer to the following documents:
Arbitrum Rollup Whitepaper
Arbitrum academic paper (describes a previous version of Arbitrum)
4. Developer docs and APIs
For full details about how to set up and interact with an Arbitrum Rollup chain or validator, please refer to our developer docs, which can be found at https://developer.offchainlabs.com/.
Note that the Arbitrum version described on that site is older and will soon be replaced by the version we are entering in Reddit Bake-Off, which is still undergoing internal testing before public release.
5. Who are the validators?
As with any Layer 2 protocol, advancing the protocol correctly requires at least one validator (sometimes called block producers) that is honest and available. A natural question is: who are the validators?
Recall that the validator set for an Arbitrum chain is open and permissionless; anyone can start or stop validating at will. (A useful analogy is to full nodes on an L1 chain.) But we understand that even though anyone can participate, Reddit may want to guarantee that highly reputable nodes are validating their chain. Reddit may choose to validate the chain themselves and/or hire third-party validators.To this end, we have begun building a marketplace for validator-for-hire services so that dapp developers can outsource validation services to reputable nodes with high up-time. We've announced a partnership in which Chainlink nodes will provide Arbitrum validation services, and we expect to announce more partnerships shortly with other blockchain infrastructure providers.
Although there is no requirement that validators are paid, Arbitrum’s economic model tracks validators’ costs (e.g. amount of computation and storage) and can charge small fees on user transactions, using a gas-type system, to cover those costs. Alternatively, a single party such as Reddit can agree to cover the costs of invited validators.
6. Reddit Contract Support
Since Arbitrum contracts and transactions are byte-for-byte compatible with Ethereum, supporting the Reddit contracts is as simple as launching them on an Arbitrum chain.
Minting. Arbitrum Rollup supports hybrid L1/L2 tokens which can be minted in L2 and then withdrawn onto the L1. An L1 contract at address A can make a special call to the EthBridge which deploys a "buddy contract" to the same address A on an Arbitrum chain. Since it's deployed at the same address, users can know that the L2 contract is the authorized "buddy" of the L1 contract on the Arbitrum chain.
For minting, the L1 contract is a standard ERC-20 contract which mints and burns tokens when requested by the L2 contract. It is paired with an ERC-20 contract in L2 which mints tokens based on whatever programmer provided minting facility is desired and burns tokens when they are withdrawn from the rollup chain. Given this base infrastructure, Arbitrum can support any smart contract based method for minting tokens in L2, and indeed we directly support Reddit's signature/claim based minting in L2.
Batch minting. What's better than a mint cookie? A whole batch! In addition to supporting Reddit’s current minting/claiming scheme, we built a second minting design, which we believe outperforms the signature/claim system in many scenarios.
In the current system, Reddit periodically issues signed statements to users, who then take those statements to the blockchain to claim their tokens. An alternative approach would have Reddit directly submit the list of users/amounts to the blockchain and distribute the tokens to the users without the signature/claim process.
To optimize the cost efficiency of this approach, we designed an application-specific compression scheme to minimize the size of the batch distribution list. We analyzed the data from Reddit's previous distributions and found that the data is highly compressible since token amounts are small and repeated, and addresses appear multiple times. Our function groups transactions by size, and replaces previously-seen addresses with a shorter index value. We wrote client code to compress the data, wrote a Solidity decompressing function, and integrated that function into Reddit’s contract running on Arbitrum.
When we ran the compression function on the previous Reddit distribution data, we found that we could compress batched minting data down to to 11.8 bytes per minting event (averaged over a 6-month trace of Reddit’s historical token grants)compared with roughly 174 bytes of on-chain data needed for the signature claim approach to minting (roughly 43 for an RLP-encoded null transaction + 65 for Reddit's signature + 65 for the user's signature + roughly 8 for the number of Points) .
The relative benefit of the two approaches with respect to on-chain call data cost depends on the percentage of users that will actually claim their tokens on chain. With the above figures, batch minting will be cheaper if roughly 5% of users redeem their claims. We stress that our compression scheme is not Arbitrum-specific and would be beneficial in any general-purpose smart contract platform.
8. Benchmarks and costs
In this section, we give the full costs of operating the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain including the L1 gas costs for the Rollup chain, the costs of computation and storage for the L2 validators as well as the capital lockup requirements for staking.
Arbitrum Rollup is still on testnet, so we did not run mainnet benchmarks. Instead, we measured the L1 gas cost and L2 workload for Reddit operations on Arbitrum and calculated the total cost assuming current Ethereum gas prices. As noted below in detail, our measurements do not assume that Arbitrum is consuming the entire capacity of Ethereum. We will present the details of our model now, but for full transparency you can also play around with it yourself and adjust the parameters, by copying the spreadsheet found here.
Our cost model is based on measurements of Reddit’s contracts, running unmodified (except for the addition of a batch minting function) on Arbitrum Rollup on top of Ethereum.
On the distribution of transactions and frequency of assertions. Reddit's instructions specify the following minimum parameters that submissions should support:
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
  • 100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points)
  • 25,000 subscriptions
  • 75,000 one-off points burning
  • 100,000 transfers
We provide the full costs of operating an Arbitrum Rollup chain with this usage under the assumption that tokens are minted or granted to users in batches, but other transactions are uniformly distributed over the 5 day period. Unlike some other submissions, we do not make unrealistic assumptions that all operations can be submitted in enormous batches. We assume that batch minting is done in batches that use only a few percent on an L1 block’s gas, and that other operations come in evenly over time and are submitted in batches, with one batch every five minutes to keep latency reasonable. (Users are probably already waiting for L1 finality, which takes at least that long to achieve.)
We note that assuming that there are only 300,000 transactions that arrive uniformly over the 5 day period will make our benchmark numbers lower, but we believe that this will reflect the true cost of running the system. To see why, say that batches are submitted every five minutes (20 L1 blocks) and there's a fixed overhead of c bytes of calldata per batch, the cost of which will get amortized over all transactions executed in that batch. Assume that each individual transaction adds a marginal cost of t. Lastly assume the capacity of the scaling system is high enough that it can support all of Reddit's 300,000 transactions within a single 20-block batch (i.e. that there is more than c + 300,000*t byes of calldata available in 20 blocks).
Consider what happens if c, the per-batch overhead, is large (which it is in some systems, but not in Arbitrum). In the scenario that transactions actually arrive at the system's capacity and each batch is full, then c gets amortized over 300,000 transactions. But if we assume that the system is not running at capacity--and only receives 300,000 transactions arriving uniformly over 5 days-- then each 20-block assertion will contain about 200 transactions, and thus each transaction will pay a nontrivial cost due to c.
We are aware that other proposals presented scaling numbers assuming that 300,000 transactions arrived at maximum capacity and was executed in a single mega-transaction, but according to our estimates, for at least one such report, this led to a reported gas price that was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than it would have been assuming uniform arrival. We make more realistic batching assumptions, and we believe Arbitrum compares well when batch sizes are realistic.
Our model. Our cost model includes several sources of cost:
  • L1 gas costs: This is the cost of posting transactions as calldata on the L1 chain, as well as the overhead associated with each batch of transactions, and the L1 cost of settling transactions in the Arbitrum protocol.
  • Validator’s staking costs: In normal operation, one validator will need to be staked. The stake is assumed to be 0.2% of the total value of the chain (which is assumed to be $1 per user who is eligible to claim points). The cost of staking is the interest that could be earned on the money if it were not staked.
  • Validator computation and storage: Every validator must do computation to track the chain’s processing of transactions, and must maintain storage to keep track of the contracts’ EVM storage. The cost of computation and storage are estimated based on measurements, with the dollar cost of resources based on Amazon Web Services pricing.
It’s clear from our modeling that the predominant cost is for L1 calldata. This will probably be true for any plausible rollup-based system.
Our model also shows that Arbitrum can scale to workloads much larger than Reddit’s nominal workload, without exhausting L1 or L2 resources. The scaling bottleneck will ultimately be calldata on the L1 chain. We believe that cost could be reduced substantially if necessary by clever encoding of data. (In our design any compression / decompression of L2 transaction calldata would be done by client software and L2 programs, never by an L1 contract.)
9. Status of Arbitrum Rollup
Arbitrum Rollup is live on Ethereum testnet. All of the code written to date including everything included in the Reddit demo is open source and permissively licensed under the Apache V2 license. The first testnet version of Arbitrum Rollup was released on testnet in February. Our current internal version, which we used to benchmark the Reddit contracts, will be released soon and will be a major upgrade.
Both the Arbitrum design as well as the implementation are heavily audited by independent third parties. The Arbitrum academic paper was published at USENIX Security, a top-tier peer-reviewed academic venue. For the Arbitrum software, we have engaged Trail of Bits for a security audit, which is currently ongoing, and we are committed to have a clean report before launching on Ethereum mainnet.
10. Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup Chain
The benchmarks described in this document were all measured using the latest internal build of our software. When we release the new software upgrade publicly we will launch a Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup chain as a public demo, which will contain the Reddit contracts as well as a Uniswap instance and a Connext Hub, demonstrating how Community Points can be integrated into third party apps. We will also allow members of the public to dynamically launch ecosystem contracts. We at Offchain Labs will cover the validating costs for the Reddit Universe public demo.
If the folks at Reddit would like to evaluate our software prior to our public demo, please email us at [email protected] and we'd be more than happy to provide early access.
11. Even more scaling: Arbitrum Sidechains
Rollups are an excellent approach to scaling, and we are excited about Arbitrum Rollup which far surpasses Reddit's scaling needs. But looking forward to Reddit's eventual goal of supporting hundreds of millions of users, there will likely come a time when Reddit needs more scaling than any Rollup protocol can provide.
While Rollups greatly reduce costs, they don't break the linear barrier. That is, all transactions have an on-chain footprint (because all calldata must be posted on-chain), albeit a far smaller one than on native Ethereum, and the L1 limitations end up being the bottleneck for capacity and cost. Since Ethereum has limited capacity, this linear use of on-chain resources means that costs will eventually increase superlinearly with traffic.
The good news is that we at Offchain Labs have a solution in our roadmap that can satisfy this extreme-scaling setting as well: Arbitrum AnyTrust Sidechains. Arbitrum Sidechains are similar to Arbitrum Rollup, but deviate in that they name a permissioned set of validators. When a chain’s validators agree off-chain, they can greatly reduce the on-chain footprint of the protocol and require almost no data to be put on-chain. When validators can't reach unanimous agreement off-chain, the protocol reverts to Arbitrum Rollup. Technically, Arbitrum Sidechains can be viewed as a hybrid between state channels and Rollup, switching back and forth as necessary, and combining the performance and cost that state channels can achieve in the optimistic case, with the robustness of Rollup in other cases. The core technical challenge is how to switch seamlessly between modes and how to guarantee that security is maintained throughout.
Arbitrum Sidechains break through this linear barrier, while still maintaining a high level of security and decentralization. Arbitrum Sidechains provide the AnyTrust guarantee, which says that as long as any one validator is honest and available (even if you don't know which one will be), the L2 chain is guaranteed to execute correctly according to its code and guaranteed to make progress. Unlike in a state channel, offchain progress does not require unanimous consent, and liveness is preserved as long as there is a single honest validator.
Note that the trust model for Arbitrum Sidechains is much stronger than for typical BFT-style chains which introduce a consensus "voting" protocols among a small permissioned group of validators. BFT-based protocols require a supermajority (more than 2/3) of validators to agree. In Arbitrum Sidechains, by contrast, all you need is a single honest validator to achieve guaranteed correctness and progress. Notice that in Arbitrum adding validators strictly increases security since the AnyTrust guarantee provides correctness as long as any one validator is honest and available. By contrast, in BFT-style protocols, adding nodes can be dangerous as a coalition of dishonest nodes can break the protocol.
Like Arbitrum Rollup, the developer and user experiences for Arbitrum Sidechains will be identical to that of Ethereum. Reddit would be able to choose a large and diverse set of validators, and all that they would need to guarantee to break through the scaling barrier is that a single one of them will remain honest.
We hope to have Arbitrum Sidechains in production in early 2021, and thus when Reddit reaches the scale that surpasses the capacity of Rollups, Arbitrum Sidechains will be waiting and ready to help.
While the idea to switch between channels and Rollup to get the best of both worlds is conceptually simple, getting the details right and making sure that the switch does not introduce any attack vectors is highly non-trivial and has been the subject of years of our research (indeed, we were working on this design for years before the term Rollup was even coined).
12. How Arbitrum compares
We include a comparison to several other categories as well as specific projects when appropriate. and explain why we believe that Arbitrum is best suited for Reddit's purposes. We focus our attention on other Ethereum projects.
Payment only Rollups. Compared to Arbitrum Rollup, ZK-Rollups and other Rollups that only support token transfers have several disadvantages:
  • As outlined throughout the proposal, we believe that the entire draw of Ethereum is in its rich smart contracts support which is simply not achievable with today's zero-knowledge proof technology. Indeed, scaling with a ZK-Rollup will add friction to the deployment of smart contracts that interact with Community Points as users will have to withdraw their coins from the ZK-Rollup and transfer them to a smart contract system (like Arbitrum). The community will be best served if Reddit builds on a platform that has built-in, frictionless smart-contract support.
  • All other Rollup protocols of which we are aware employ a centralized operator. While it's true that users retain custody of their coins, the centralized operator can often profit from censoring, reordering, or delaying transactions. A common misconception is that since they're non-custodial protocols, a centralized sequencer does not pose a risk but this is incorrect as the sequencer can wreak havoc or shake down users for side payments without directly stealing funds.
  • Sidechain type protocols can eliminate some of these issues, but they are not trustless. Instead, they require trust in some quorum of a committee, often requiring two-third of the committee to be honest, compared to rollup protocols like Arbitrum that require only a single honest party. In addition, not all sidechain type protocols have committees that are diverse, or even non-centralized, in practice.
  • Plasma-style protocols have a centralized operator and do not support general smart contracts.
13. Concluding Remarks
While it's ultimately up to the judges’ palate, we believe that Arbitrum Rollup is the bakeoff choice that Reddit kneads. We far surpass Reddit's specified workload requirement at present, have much room to optimize Arbitrum Rollup in the near term, and have a clear path to get Reddit to hundreds of millions of users. Furthermore, we are the only project that gives developers and users the identical interface as the Ethereum blockchain and is fully interoperable and tooling-compatible, and we do this all without any new trust assumptions or centralized components.
But no matter how the cookie crumbles, we're glad to have participated in this bake-off and we thank you for your consideration.
About Offchain Labs
Offchain Labs, Inc. is a venture-funded New York company that spun out of Princeton University research, and is building the Arbitrum platform to usher in the next generation of scalable, interoperable, and compatible smart contracts. Offchain Labs is backed by Pantera Capital, Compound VC, Coinbase Ventures, and others.
Leadership Team
Ed Felten
Ed Felten is Co-founder and Chief Scientist at Offchain Labs. He is on leave from Princeton University, where he is the Robert E. Kahn Professor of Computer Science and Public Affairs. From 2015 to 2017 he served at the White House as Deputy United States Chief Technology Officer and senior advisor to the President. He is an ACM Fellow and member of the National Academy of Engineering. Outside of work, he is an avid runner, cook, and L.A. Dodgers fan.
Steven Goldfeder
Steven Goldfeder is Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer at Offchain Labs. He holds a PhD from Princeton University, where he worked at the intersection of cryptography and cryptocurrencies including threshold cryptography, zero-knowledge proof systems, and post-quantum signatures. He is a co-author of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies, the leading textbook on cryptocurrencies, and he has previously worked at Google and Microsoft Research, where he co-invented the Picnic signature algorithm. When not working, you can find Steven spending time with his family, taking a nature walk, or twisting balloons.
Harry Kalodner
Harry Kalodner is Co-founder and Chief Technology Officer at Offchain Labs where he leads the engineering team. Before the company he attended Princeton as a Ph.D candidate where his research explored economics, anonymity, and incentive compatibility of cryptocurrencies, and he also has worked at Apple. When not up at 3:00am writing code, Harry occasionally sleeps.
submitted by hkalodner to ethereum [link] [comments]

Particl Marketplace: Where Sellers Meet Buyers

Particl Marketplace: Where Sellers Meet Buyers
People had been speculating since the dawn of crypto when the world’s largest online marketplaces, the ones of the Amazon caliber like eBay, Etsy or AliExpress, and, well, Amazon itself, would start to accept cryptocurrencies. There were a slew of rumors, opinions, and theories thickly interspersed with false reports popping up here and there of Amazon and its little cousins being on the verge of embracing cryptocurrencies. On top of that, someone has actually posted a petition on change.org to add Ether to Amazon as a payment method.
by StealthEX
Long story short, that was a waste of time. High hopes fell flat, and people lost religion. But not all. As the common wisdom goes, when hope dies, action begins. This exposition describes one such effort which tries to bring to fruition the idea of a decentralized marketplace for trading goods and services. And as you might have already figured it out, with a cryptocurrency as a means of payment. So let’s welcome Particl Marketplace and see what it has to offer – and what Amazon has missed.

What is it, in simple words?

Particl Marketplace is an online marketplace where you can trade goods and services. Not a big deal, you may think. However, what distinguishes it from places like Amazon as well as cryptocurrency-enabled marketplaces is the decentralized nature of purchases on Particl. You can think of it as a variety of a decentralized cryptocurrency exchange (aka DEX) where trades are being conducted on-chain. But in case of Particl, it is goods and services that are being traded, not fiat or crypto, with deals on-chain as well, fully encrypted and decentralized.
Particl is a global peer-to-peer privacy-centered marketplace that uses an automated two-party escrow system. It is crypto-agnostic and designed to work with any cryptocurrency, creating a secure, highly-scalable environment supported by a privacy-focused blockchain-based platform. The team behind the project sees its mission in developing “a new decentralized, private and democratic economy” that is governed by the network of its users, with no central authority or middleman getting in the way.
In the project developers’ own words, Particl enables everyone to participate in a free, anonymous exchange of all kinds of goods, without paying any fee and regardless of geographical location. To be sure, you are already thinking about Silk Road and its dark fate, and that the government is going to crack down monumentally on Particl one day. Well, the outcome may vary as the payments on the platform are made using its own cryptocurrency PART, with its laser focus on privacy and anonymity. But more on this later.

How did it grow up?

The development of the Particl project started in early 2017 with the release of the white paper describing the team’s vision for the marketplace, which was shortly followed by a successful seed funding that brought in enough funds ($750,000) to support the development of the project for a year (it turned out sufficient to last for over two years).
These donations helped to establish the Particl Foundation, a non-profit Swiss organization with the goal of providing legal protection for the project to ensure its sustained development and compliance with government regulations. It receives 10% of all the staking rewards generated on the Particl network, making the project self-sustainable and free for most uses.
Unlike other such projects in the crypto arena, Particl has been using its own blockchain from day one, which happened to be July 17, 2017. It was specifically designed to be crypto agnostic by supporting and working with any cryptocurrency. Additionally, it supported the smart contract tech out of the box, giving users an ability to build all kinds of decentralized applications (dApps) that can be directly integrated into the Particl marketplace.
On May 31, 2018, the Particl Marketplace, the Holy Grail of the entire endeavor, was made available for alpha testing on the testnet of the project, which later split into development and stable branches. It went live with the mainnet release of the Particl Open Marketplace on August 12, 2019, which featured Particl Desktop 2.0.0, a client-side application providing user interface and built-in wallet functions.
On November 25, 2019, the Particl Desktop 2.3.0 client was released that enabled Bitcoin payments and marked the introduction of untraceable transactions. With the help of the new in-wallet exchange module, everyone can easily swap their bitcoins for the native PART coin. Moreover, the module allows seamless integration of third-party accountless exchange services right into the marketplace, with StealthEX being one of them.

How is it different from other marketplaces?

The common solution many P2P marketplaces implement to protect buyers and sellers from the other party failing to honor their end of the bargain is through third-party escrow, where the “third-party” in the majority of places and cases is the platform itself that the market participants must mutually trust. In short, it is a single point of failure. And the selling (pardon the pun) point of the entire Particl’s marketplace is its decentralized escrow, which is a thing entirely between the two parties engaged. No middlemen allowed here!
And these are not empty words. Particl implements the concept best known as Mutually Assured Destruction (aptly shortened as MAD), a military doctrine you are certainly familiar with, and probably even afraid of, that consists in a mutual destruction of two belligerent parties in an all-out nuclear holocaust. If you are curious, the idea stems from the game theory and has a lot to do with the Nash Equilibrium, of John Nash’s fame. In a nutshell, Particl removes the need for a trusted escrow agent by introducing MAD escrow smart contracts.
A MAD escrow contract allows to lock funds in a multi-signature address that can be released only if all the parties sign off on the transaction. So both the seller and the buyer lock in the contract an agreed amount for a specified period of time, with the buyer also depositing the payment for the items purchased. The escrowed funds are released when both parties confirm the fulfillment of the agreement. Should one party break the terms, the funds remain locked for good causing a mutual financial loss until both parties agree to sign off.
Another crucial aspect of Particl Marketplace is its end-to-end privacy. The problem with conventional marketplaces acting as an escrow agent is that the communication between the parties should be open to the agent for it to serve as an arbitrator. With Particl, it is no longer required, and all messages between the buyer and the seller are encrypted. Despite being public, only their recipient can decrypt them, which effectively makes messages untraceable.
This is also where the PART coin turns up quite handy. It enables three different privacy modes, and with the most secure mode, the Anon mode, PART transactions utilize the RingCT privacy protocol, which hides both the amount transferred and the identity of the parties transacting. Accordingly, every part of the entire Particl trading environment is thoroughly decentralized, and the full anonymity of market participants is maintained at all times, making the platform a completely trustless marketplace. Big Brother is no longer watching you.
Aside from that, you can stake PART and generate a source of passive income for yourself. Particl uses a custom Proof-of-Stake consensus protocol, allowing you to get a piece of the pie in the form of new coins created at each block according to the scheduled inflation process. The annual inflation rate is initially set to 5% and goes down 1 percentage point every year until it finally floors at 2% indefinitely. Moreover, these rates are a bare minimum as they assume that all PART coins have been staked. Otherwise, the income will be bigger and better as the same rewards are paid to fewer coins.
Additionally, your passive income through staking PART will be augmented by the fees generated through the everyday marketplace operations. Whether it is network fees collected via PART transactions or marketplace listing fees paid by the sellers, all of them contribute to the stakers’ rewards. At the end of the day, staking PART can turn into a profitable business once the Particl platform starts to attract more traffic. In simple words, the more popular the market gets, the more fees it generates, the more coins the stakers earn.
As PART is a standalone cryptocurrency, it can be used outside Particl Marketplace as well. So if you plan on using it for purposes other than eCommerce, it is traded on several exchanges, for example, HitBTC and Bittrex, with more exchanges to list PART in the future. There are native Particl wallets available for storing PART such as Particl Qt with Ledger support, Particl-cli, and Particl Copay Wallet, with the latter available for both the desktop and the mobile. There is also a third-party multicurrency Flare Wallet, enabling cold staking for Particl.
Running Particl is a collective effort, which means no operational costs and no company bagging profits from it. The marketplace buyers don’t pay any commissions other than tiny network confirmation fees, while the sellers are only charged a small listing fee to keep spam listings to a minimum. This creates a highly competitive environment, with the sellers making more profits and the buyers having access to cheaper goods and services as a result.

What’s in the pipeline?

The next major release of the Particl Marketplace should have been Particl Desktop 2.4.0, but it was later rebranded as Particl Desktop 3.0 to reflect its breakthrough nature. It is set for release in the second half of 2020 and will enable the addition of user-created markets and storefronts, effectively turning the Particl marketplace into a network of specialized markets.
And if you think about it, that makes perfect sense. Say, you have a social network account highly merited and full of karma that you want to sell, whatever your reasons might be. Then creating a dedicated market for trading such accounts privately and securely may look extremely appealing to you. Whether it is the right thing to do is another matter, of course.
Kidding aside, it is obviously not about selling or offering something that the society on the whole doesn’t approve of or frowns upon. If you are a freelancer, for example, a graphics designer or a translator, you would be certainly interested in the future freelancer markets – along with your potential employers. Put simply, birds of a feather should flock together.
To keep things in perspective, popular freelancer markets that exist today charge up to 10-20% of what you would get from your client if you negotiated directly. All in all, establishing communities across the marketplace seems to be the next logical step in the natural evolution and growth of the platform. In fact, it is a little surprising that the Particl team didn’t come up with this idea earlier.
Meanwhile, we wish Particl success and good luck in achieving their goals and aspirations.
And remember if you need to exchange your coins StealthEX is here for you. We provide a selection of more than 250 coins and constantly updating the list so that our customers will find a suitable option. Our service does not require registration and allows you to remain anonymous. Why don’t you check it out? Just go to StealthEX and follow these easy steps:
✔ Choose the pair and the amount for your exchange. For example ETH to PART.
✔ Press the “Start exchange” button.
✔ Provide the recipient address to which the coins will be transferred.
✔ Move your cryptocurrency for the exchange.
✔ Receive your PART coins!
Follow us on Medium, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit to get StealthEX.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world. For all requests message us via [email protected].
The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author. Every investment and trading move involves risk. You should conduct your own research when making a decision.
Original article was posted on https://stealthex.io/blog/2020/08/26/particl-marketplace-where-sellers-meet-buyers/
submitted by Stealthex_io to StealthEX [link] [comments]

Anonimity. Chapter 1. part 1.

First of all, i want to say Sorry, because i use computer interpeter for text of my book. English isn't native language for me. I can talk with you guys, but text is really difficult to translate manually.
This book about near future in Russia. Sometimes it's full of stereotypes and some manners which are hard to understand for people from USA, Europe and ohter world. Almost everything creations in cyberpunk jenre starting like it's actually happened. In 30\* year or so. No one talks how it started. I try to do it. Hope that U will like it.*
Thanks! Have a nice day!
p.s. I'm always in touch on twitter, facebook and etc. Actually since yesterday on Patreon, Lol.

Anonymity is an impersonal property by the meaning of the adjective; lack of individuality, originality.
I would like to be born earlier, say, in the eighties and nineties, and somewhere in Europe or the USA. The point is not that I am not a patriot, but that it was at this time that progress made leaps and bounds all over the world, it was then that the concept of "globalization" became a symbol of the word "progress".
No joke, the flourishing of car production, a breakthrough in aircraft construction, the beginning of the computer era ... Of course, the Soviet Union took an active part in this, only there is a significant factor that would not allow me to enjoy the above to the fullest. The union died in 1991 and hard times came for the inhabitants of the entire post-Soviet space. I could only stand on the sidelines of all this, remembering the first Nintendo, SEGA, PC and other things that were attributes of the life of adolescents in those days. We were shoved from blue screens, as a given, that everywhere and the grass is greener than the trampled parking lot in front of the house, and the sun shines somewhere brighter there.
The corridors of the educational building of the institute, in which I studied since 2020, looked more like the ruins of an ancient civilization. On the walls there were many portraits of scientists from past years, those who seriously looked at students who did not know what they want from life and why they went to a technical university at all.
With the advent of the Internet to the general public, everyone decided that now you can learn from any corner of the world, read books and perform other useful activities. What actually happened? But in fact, people bare all their vices, the traffic of sites with 18+ content is much higher than that of a site with physical and technical content, which is remembered when writing term papers or theses.
The group of students standing in front of room 203 was no exception. If you look at them from the outside, you can understand what this passage about sites of a narrow focus was about. Here is Maxim, he is dressed in tight trousers, a purse hangs on his shoulder, the key to a fresh BMW is in his hand, next to him is a pretty girl in a skirt with a plaid and a white blouse. She smells of some kind of perfume, from which the nose clogs up and the eyes begin to water. She communicates with him, practically dumping her bust out, which he willingly uses. But why should he - a resident of the capital, who already in life everything worked out from the start, a girl from Ryazan province, who came to conquer Moscow - is unclear. First of all, it is not clear to Kirill and Mishka, the two ringleaders of the group, they live in the same room in a hostel and come to the institute in broken-down Zhiguli car. How many years have passed, and these piles of iron still plow the vastness of the universe. The guys do not boast about it, they work part-time in the delivery of pizza and sushi. The work is difficult in places, but if they are here, then they survived. They came from the Orenburg region in the hope of gaining a foothold here, who brought whom - we still need to think, but one thing I can say for sure, everyone needs friends, which means they will not be lost. They are standing with Vit'ka, a resident of the Moscow region, and therefore not in the hostel. The non-rubber dorms in Non-rubber city are beauty. And what he spends, like many of the group, two hours on the road, few people care. I stood in the corner and crammed notes. The rest of the group worried me a little, because I practically did not communicate with them, only on institutional matters. There were a total of twelve people, and in fact almost twenty heads were enrolled in the first year ... - Hey, Kit, look, - said Mishka, who came up to me, nodding at Max.
- I don’t see what to look at,- I looked up from the notes for a second and again buried myself back.
-She’ll strangle him with her airbags now,- he continued.
- Well, at least then Maxim will die happy, I suppose.
- It's already good to cram, the last exam. And then - final exams are handed over, and - freedom. Good already. You have everything on the ointment with the teacher, - Kirill jumped cheerfully.
- On "ointment" does not mean that I will not have to answer questions and take the test part. And there is a commission from all over the department.
- Listen, it's good to fill in, well, - Vitya joined us, - the whole department adores you. The one who needs to worry is her, - he nodded again at Max's interlocutor, - her whole brain will now fall out into the street, and by the age of thirty it will sag to the navel. It’s not the "same coat" now.
- Not understood?! Have you checked, or what? - Mishka and Kirill responded in unison, bulging their eyes at Vitya. - What's the difference whether I checked it or not. I'm just as uninteresting to her as you two are, - He answered.
- No, no, no, come on in more detail here, - said Mishka, folding his arms over his chest, which made his shirt start to crack at the seams. The guys got stronger from physical work.
- Yes, a couple of years ago, I arrived at the institute in my aunt's car. She lives in Moscow, near Sadovoe ring, - began Vitya.
- Well, I remember, she seems to have a Mercedes E-class. We rode at night, - with their conversation, they did tear me away from repeating the material.
- Well, - he continued, - my aunt was leaving for Cyprus for two weeks to rest. She loves me, she cannot have children, so she spoils her nephew. So she said: "Here are the keys to the house, here are the keys to the car. Simple equipment is harmful." I already refused, but she did not accept objections. We rode with you on the third day, and at the end of the week, this madam approaches, - he nodded towards Max, - and it began, everything is the same, the chest is protruding, hints and so on.
- And then what ?! - asked Kiril.
- Next, I collected a scholarship, borrowed it from you, and went for a walk. And that, then it seemed to me, the girl is not bad. We went to Cafe, walked around Zaryadye guide-park. Word for word, we ended up at my aunt’s house, and I’m not taking her to my area. Well, that's all, as they say in the novels.
- And the details? - put in Mishka, - Let's paint, otherwise we see the object, the fantasy works, but here it is.
- There will be no details, I'm talking about the bed in the bed, where you can't get, Misha. I can only say that next week after, we did not get out of it. And then my aunt arrived, and I again returned to my mother in the village. And she said, "let's go for a drive, and let's go to you." Well, I said that I live in a village near Yegoryevsk. She even threatened to declare to write, they say, I forced her all week ... It's good that the threats remained so.
- What are we going to do, Max is swimming, apparently, - I said, looking at how our friend's cheeks melt and his eyes grow cloudy.
- Don't piss, Keith. Look here, - Mishka winked and confidently walked towards the couple.
- Mishka, you would at least wash the dirt from under your nails!- Kirill shouted after him, to which he was sent with his middle finger over his shoulder.
- Let's see how the matter ends, do not distract him, - I asked Kirill.
It is worth making a digression here. Maxim was the son of the head of a department of some multinational corporation. He was not a typical daddy's son, he did not shine with intelligence, but he was not stupid either. He was also not a spoiled major. He dressed modestly, but tastefully, for the first two courses he took the metro, then moved with the help of his father to a second-hand German car. In the first year, we helped each other, all five, and on that one we became friends. When we could have tied a few lines of code together, Max's father started throwing hack for us. Also, he asked to help his younger talent. Who would have thought that from the fourth year the talent itself would be interested in everyone and the money of his father would be spent by all of us on a joint revelry, now in the hostel, then in the country. But we have postponed something. By the way, Max was always ashamed of his father's dachas and loved our simple dachas, in which there was nothing but a house and a bathhouse. And about the fact that we all slept - anywhere, I will not tell. The father gave Max a new car only the other day, when he realized that his son deserved a gift for the end.
The death of Vitya's father brought us even closer, it seems, in his third year ... His father was a strong man who himself left the city closer to the earth. He started a household and so on ... We turned out to be the healthiest foreheads, and carried the coffin to the cemetery. It so happened that he and his mother had few loved ones, and even those old people. Oncology did not ask whom to pick up. Vitya did not live with his aunt, although she always had a room ready for him. He told her: "Who will I leave my mother to?" So we were friends with our five all the time.
In the meantime, Mishka confidently approached the couple, taxied behind Max, shook him by the shoulders, said something, which made Madame's face turn red, and this could be seen even through the foundation, and now they already walked towards us.
- Grandmaster, not otherwise, - Kiril said on exhalation.
- I suggest everyone go out for a smoke, - I said as the guys approached, and we headed for the stairs.
So we, with our motley company, migrated to the entrance to the educational building. The big sign "NO smoking" got an ashen smiley with a mustache, beard, and who was not so cultured, painted what is usually painted on fences in the village. In general, the spirit of student unity was evident here as well. We lit a cigarette with our friendly company.
- Well, what, the last exam, eh?- I began.
- Yes, finally, and then already tired, the sun is outside, girls in skirts, and we are sitting here, - picked up Max.
- Yeah, is it you who fell for the skirt, or just got confused? - I poked him.
- Yes, she came, word for word, so, chatter about nothing, and I see that she constantly props her chest with her hands, but the look itself fell there, - Maxim began to make excuses.
- Yeah, and when the bodice is removed and stops propping up, I guarantee that you will want to put a basin, as if from a drink. This good will fall, like the bitcoin rate in tenths, and everything will end either with a wedding on a fake pregnancy, or you will pay off so that she does not apply for you, - Vitya continued.
- And how do you know, Vitos? You're still a quiet one. Probably, he didn't even hold on to the handle, - Maxim tried to continue the excuse.
- The best defense is offense? - Kirill interjected.
- Hush, Kir. Max, just the same with her and held on to the handle. Remember the third year, when we rode in my aunt's car.
- Let's say. I remember.
- So she was gone for two weeks, and we drank one. The second week I was busy with her, or rather, she suggested it herself, and I did not refuse. I ended up borrowing money from you in order to pay off her. As I remember, a shiver breaks through.
- So you said that on a wheelbarrow, which he threw as soon as he bought, - Max refused to believe.
- As you understand, I didn't buy a car, but paid Madame for services, - Vityok involuntarily grimaced.
- Oh, - Max realized, - I apologize, and thanks for the warning. I just lacked the Ryazan milkmaid.
- Do not forget about saggy tits, - added Mishka.
- Yes, Ryazan milkmaid with sagging tits, - repeated Max and threw out the cigarette butt. We followed suit and returned to the corridor.
There were still a couple of minutes before the start of the exam, there were even more people, room 203 was an amphitheater, which made it possible to conduct exams for a large number of students. Organized groups of students crowded, according to my estimates, at least three, which means about fifty people. That's really, wholesale is cheaper.
- So, gentlemen graduates! - the head of our department, a woman in years, but with an iron grip, and, moreover, an excellent teacher, came out of the office. - I ask you to take seats in the audience.
We are located on the same row, all of our five. As per the precepts, not far, but not close to the commission. If you sit close - you will be in plain sight as a crammer, if from behind - as a gouge. The tactics were working, the answer cheats were prepared in paper, jammers were knocking out the Internet and all kinds of wireless headphones. White noise was reproduced in the headphones, but our Galya (Ryazan milkmaid) was not ready for such a scenario, and upon switching on she began to look around the audience helplessly. We did not gloat, but we did not deprive ourselves of moral satisfaction.
Sweating over the ticket, I wondered, what will happen after school? I didn’t understand at all why I was going to become a programmer. I studied a little, something and somehow, but do I see myself in the profession ??? Not sure. Okay, war will tell the plan. I quickly wrote answers to three out of four questions, thought for a long time, but did not win. Okay, one more four, one less. Kiril and Mishka tensed, their foreheads were covered with sweat, but they write something tirelessly. The commission was already minding its own business and paid less attention to us.
- Pssss, - Max shouted to me.
- What? I replied in a whisper.
- After the exam we are going to my village house, to have a carouse. And I do not want to know the refusal. Pass on. Dad threw off the SMS, I didn't have time to say.
- So you wrote everything? - You offend! I got a favorite topic. And how many business card-sites we riveted, I will keep silent. So that.
On this wonderful note, all students were asked to submit papers. Traditionally, only those with a controversial assessment were personally interviewed. None of our company got into this number, so we loaded into the Maxim's BMW and drove out the City.
The Moscow heat, who has been, knows how hot it is in the megalopolis in summer, especially when the changed tiles get hot for the hundredth time, but the breeze is gone. We left the building happy and tired. The presentation of the diplomas was expected in a month, and today two B grades, A grade for Vitya and C grade for Kirill and Mishka. We went out, Max opened a pack of cigarettes that his father had brought him from Cuba, I think "Cohiba", knocked out a cigarette for everyone and gave them a light. Silently we dragged on simultaneously and headed to the car.
- So, - Max said sternly, - we don't smoke inside!
- I see, - we answered and finished smoking, standing near the apparatus.
I sat in front, as the tallest, the rest of the guys were in the back. Mishka was unlucky most of all, he was pushed into the middle, consider that he rode more inconveniently and higher than all those present, and the village-house was already beyond Sergiev Posad. So from time to time on the hummocks our friend switched to falsetto, while the others enjoyed the ride. Father gave Max a five-sreies with many options in the cabin, but not a very voluminous engine, so that there was no desire to drive beyond measure.
- Max, are we going to stop by the store? Is there meat, booze? - I asked when we drove onto the Yaroslavl highway, breaking through the Moscow traffic jams.
- No, Dad organizes everything. For everyone. There are booze, meat, baths and other joys of life. The whole house is at our disposal, - Max answered calmly and the joyful hubbub of our comrades was heard from the back row.
After some time, we drove into the woods, where we turned into an elite village. Someone lived here permanently, while someone here just had a summer residence. The father of our friend belonged to the second type of people. It's easier to do things when you live next to work and Moscow City is just a stone's throw away, then in general it is beyond praise. Max pressed a button and the gate obediently slid to the side.
- Wow, a house, - drawled Mishka.
- Wow. I saw this in the picture, and even then not often, - Kira echoed.
- And you would pay more attention to common girls when my father called us to celebrate the launch of their product on the market, - Max answered.
- So you were here?
- Yes, we were once,
- I answered.
- Uh-huh, - said Vityok.
There was something to be surprised at. A two-story European-style mansion among trees, with a large veranda on which stood a heavy oak table and chairs. There was also a tennis court at some distance. There was a large garage and a barbecue corner on site. In front of the house there is a lawn with various conifers. Before leaving the car, we smelled the smell of meat.
- Apparently, the father of his cook asked to cook everything, so you guys won't be able to leave hungry, - Max began, getting out from behind the wheel.
- So we were not going to !! - he heard the chorus from behind, and we left the ship.
We decided to go through the house, washing our hands along the way. Heavy oak planks didn't even think to creak when we fell out of the house. These are not modern plastic boards that prick and knock, while crackling like a Chinese bouncy. We went to the table, on which there were already salads, an aperitif was poured into the glasses. We drank.
- And what is this sweet muck? - Mishka responded.
- This is an aperitif, served before meals, so that you want to crackle more, Mish, - Maxim answered.
- Is it like - beer before vodka? Got it, - Kirill responded.
- Okay, I propose to start our celebration, otherwise, you never know, you will take whiskey for used oil, - Maxim continued as the owner.
- Young people. I am glad to welcome you! - a man in a cook's jacket appeared and began to tell us what dishes were on the table. In addition to the Greek salad, there was a warm tuna salad, and some other appetizers, the names of which I did not remember. From his speech, only Max understood the names, and we sat with our mouths open. Well, Vitya and I understood something, but Kirill and Mishka were sitting, frankly with the lower jaw on the floor.
- He's not cursing now? - asked Cyril when the cook left.
- No, he told me what was on the table and what would be on the hot. So, if I were you, I would pour it already, graduates!
- So we will pour! - Mishka took a bottle of Chivas, poured himself, - Who else? he asked briskly.
- Give it to me, - Kiril answered, for which he received his glass of whiskey.
- No, I'm white wine,- Vitya replied, taking a bottle of semi-dry wine.
- I thought there were no girls among us! - Mishka responded with a challenge.
- Misha, don't get to the bottom of him, I'll have vodka and juice myself, so as not to fly to the first space flight ahead of time, - I interjected.
- Let's have a drink already, otherwise you are pouring for three hours, - Max finished the squabble with a glass of vodka. - For the passed certification!
The owner of the house raised toast after toast, we ate dishes on both cheeks. To say that it was delicious is to say nothing, it was wonderful! The funniest thing was to look at Mishka and Kirill, who for the first time saw tuna not in a can, but in a salad, and it was also pink in color. Then the salads were replaced by meat, rack of lamb, ribs in sauce, steaks and various grilled vegetables. Freshly cooked fries teased with flavor ..
submitted by Suharrik to u/Suharrik [link] [comments]

[ANN][ANDROID MINING][AIRDROP] NewEnglandcoin: Scrypt RandomSpike

New England
New England 6 States Songs: https://www.reddit.com/newengland/comments/er8wxd/new_england_6_states_songs/
NewEnglandcoin
Symbol: NENG
NewEnglandcoin is a clone of Bitcoin using scrypt as a proof-of-work algorithm with enhanced features to protect against 51% attack and decentralize on mining to allow diversified mining rigs across CPUs, GPUs, ASICs and Android phones.
Mining Algorithm: Scrypt with RandomSpike. RandomSpike is 3rd generation of Dynamic Difficulty (DynDiff) algorithm on top of scrypt.
1 minute block targets base difficulty reset: every 1440 blocks subsidy halves in 2.1m blocks (~ 2 to 4 years) 84,000,000,000 total maximum NENG 20000 NENG per block Pre-mine: 1% - reserved for dev fund ICO: None RPCPort: 6376 Port: 6377
NewEnglandcoin has dogecoin like supply at 84 billion maximum NENG. This huge supply insures that NENG is suitable for retail transactions and daily use. The inflation schedule of NengEnglandcoin is actually identical to that of Litecoin. Bitcoin and Litecoin are already proven to be great long term store of value. The Litecoin-like NENG inflation schedule will make NewEnglandcoin ideal for long term investment appreciation as the supply is limited and capped at a fixed number
Bitcoin Fork - Suitable for Home Hobbyists
NewEnglandcoin core wallet continues to maintain version tag of "Satoshi v0.8.7.5" because NewEnglandcoin is very much an exact clone of bitcoin plus some mining feature changes with DynDiff algorithm. NewEnglandcoin is very suitable as lite version of bitcoin for educational purpose on desktop mining, full node running and bitcoin programming using bitcoin-json APIs.
The NewEnglandcoin (NENG) mining algorithm original upgrade ideas were mainly designed for decentralization of mining rigs on scrypt, which is same algo as litecoin/dogecoin. The way it is going now is that NENG is very suitable for bitcoin/litecoin/dogecoin hobbyists who can not , will not spend huge money to run noisy ASIC/GPU mining equipments, but still want to mine NENG at home with quiet simple CPU/GPU or with a cheap ASIC like FutureBit Moonlander 2 USB or Apollo pod on solo mining setup to obtain very decent profitable results. NENG allows bitcoin litecoin hobbyists to experience full node running, solo mining, CPU/GPU/ASIC for a fun experience at home at cheap cost without breaking bank on equipment or electricity.
MIT Free Course - 23 lectures about Bitcoin, Blockchain and Finance (Fall,2018)
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUl4u3cNGP63UUkfL0onkxF6MYgVa04Fn
CPU Minable Coin Because of dynamic difficulty algorithm on top of scrypt, NewEnglandcoin is CPU Minable. Users can easily set up full node for mining at Home PC or Mac using our dedicated cheetah software.
Research on the first forked 50 blocks on v1.2.0 core confirmed that ASIC/GPU miners mined 66% of 50 blocks, CPU miners mined the remaining 34%.
NENG v1.4.0 release enabled CPU mining inside android phones.
Youtube Video Tutorial
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdOoPvAjzlE How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHnRJvJRzZg
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in macOS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zj7NLMeNSOQ
Decentralization and Community Driven NewEnglandcoin is a decentralized coin just like bitcoin. There is no boss on NewEnglandcoin. Nobody nor the dev owns NENG.
We know a coin is worth nothing if there is no backing from community. Therefore, we as dev do not intend to make decision on this coin solely by ourselves. It is our expectation that NewEnglandcoin community will make majority of decisions on direction of this coin from now on. We as dev merely view our-self as coin creater and technical support of this coin while providing NENG a permanent home at ShorelineCrypto Exchange.
Twitter Airdrop
Follow NENG twitter and receive 100,000 NENG on Twitter Airdrop to up to 1000 winners
Graphic Redesign Bounty
Top one award: 90.9 million NENG Top 10 Winners: 500,000 NENG / person Event Timing: March 25, 2019 - Present Event Address: NewEnglandcoin DISCORD at: https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs
Please complete above Twitter Bounty requirement first. Then follow Below Steps to qualify for the Bounty: (1) Required: submit your own designed NENG logo picture in gif, png jpg or any other common graphic file format into DISCORD "bounty-submission" board (2) Optional: submit a second graphic for logo or any other marketing purposes into "bounty-submission" board. (3) Complete below form.
Please limit your submission to no more than two total. Delete any wrongly submitted or undesired graphics in the board. Contact DISCORD u/honglu69#5911 or u/krypton#6139 if you have any issues.
Twitter Airdrop/Graphic Redesign bounty sign up: https://goo.gl/forms/L0vcwmVi8c76cR7m1
Milestones
Roadmap
NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/NENG_2020_Q3_report/NENG_2020_Q3_report.pdf
RandomSpike - NENG core v1.3.0 Hardfork Upgrade Proposal https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/2020Q1_Report/Scrypt_RandomSpike_NENGv1.3.0_Hardfork_Proposal.pdf
NENG Security, Decentralization & Valuation
https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/2019Q2_report/NENG_Security_Decentralization_Value.pdf
Whitepaper v1.0 https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/whitepaper_v1.0/NENG_WhitePaper.pdf
DISCORD https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs
Explorer
http://www.findblocks.com/exploreNENG http://86.100.49.209/exploreNENG http://nengexplorer.mooo.com:3001/
Step by step guide on how to setup an explorer: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/nengexplorer
Github https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin
Wallet
Android with UserLand App (arm64/armhf), Chromebook (x64/arm64/armhf): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.5
Linux Wallet (Ubuntu/Linux Mint, Debian/MX Linux, Arch/Manjaro, Fedora, openSUSE): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.3
MacOS Wallet (10.11 El Capitan or higher): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.2
Android with GNUroot on 32 bits old Phones (alpha release) wallet: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0
Windows wallet: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.3.0.1
addnode ip address for the wallet to sync faster, frequently updated conf file: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/cheetah_cpumineblob/mastenewenglandcoin.conf-example
How to Sync Full Node Desktop Wallet https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/comments/er6f0q/how_to_sync_full_node_desktop_wallet/
TWITTER https://twitter.com/newenglandcoin
REDDIT https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/
Cheetah CPU Miner Software https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/cheetah_cpuminer
Solo Mining with GPU or ASIC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52187727#msg52187727
How to Run Two Full Node in Same Desktop PC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53581449#msg53581449
ASIC/GPU Mining Pools Warning to Big ASIC Miners Due to DynDiff Algo on top of Scrypt, solo mining is recommended for ASIC/GPU miners. Further more, even for mining pools, small mining pool will generate better performance than big NENG mining pool because of new algo v1.2.x post hard fork.
The set up configuration of NENG for scrypt pool mining is same as a typical normal scrypt coin. In other word, DynDiff on Scrypt algo is backward compatible with Scrypt algo. Because ASIC/GPU miners rely on CPU miners for smooth blockchain movement, checkout bottom of "Latest News" section for A WARNING to All ASIC miners before you decide to dump big ASIC hash rate into NENG mining.
(1) Original DynDiff Warning: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48324708#msg48324708 (2) New Warning on RandomSpike Spike difficulty (244k) introduced in RandomSpike served as roadblocks to instant mining and provide security against 51% attack risk. However, this spike difficulty like a roadblock that makes big ASIC mining less profitable. In case of spike block to be mined, the spike difficulty immediately serve as base difficulty, which will block GPU/ASIC miners effectively and leave CPU cheetah solo miners dominating mining almost 100% until next base difficulty reset.
FindBlocks http://findblocks.com/
CRpool http://crpool.xyz/
Cminors' Pool http://newenglandcoin.cminors-pool.com/
SPOOL https://spools.online/
Exchange
📷
https://shorelinecrypto.com/
Features: anonymous sign up and trading. No restriction or limit on deposit or withdraw.
The trading pairs available: NewEnglandcoin (NENG) / Dogecoin (DOGE)
Trading commission: A round trip trading will incur 0.10% trading fees in average. Fees are paid only on buyer side. buy fee: 0.2% / sell fee: 0% Deposit fees: free for all coins Withdraw fees: ZERO per withdraw. Mining fees are appointed by each coin blockchain. To cover the blockchain mining fees, there is minimum balance per coin per account: * Dogecoin 2 DOGE * NewEnglandcoin 1 NENG
Latest News Aug 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.5 Released for Android/Chromebook Upgrade with armhf, better hardware support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg55098029#msg55098029
Aug 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.4 Released for Android arm64 Upgrade / Chromebook Support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54977437#msg54977437
Jul 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.3 Released for Linux Wallet Upgrade with 8 Distros https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54898540#msg54898540
Jul 21, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.2 Released for MacOS Upgrade with Catalina https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54839522#msg54839522
Jul 19, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.1 Released for MacOS Wallet Upgrade https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54830333#msg54830333
Jul 15, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Released for Android Mining, Ubuntu 20.04 support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54803639#msg54803639
Jul 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54777222#msg54777222
Jun 27, 2020 - Pre-Announce: NENG v1.4.0 Proposal for Mobile Miner Upgrade, Android Mining Start in July 2020 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54694233#msg54694233
Jun 19, 2020 - Best Practice for Futurebit Moonlander2 USB ASIC on solo mining mode https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54645726#msg54645726
Mar 15, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG v1.3.0.1 Released for better wallet syncing https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54030923#msg54030923
Feb 23, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG Core v1.3.0 Relased, Hardfork on Mar 1 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53900926#msg53900926
Feb 1, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike Proposal Published- NENG 1.3.0 Hardfork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53735458#msg53735458
Jan 15, 2020 - NewEnglandcoin Dev Team Expanded with New Kickoff https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53617358#msg53617358
Jan 12, 2020 - Explanation of Base Diff Reset and Effect of Supply https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/comments/envmo1/explanation_of_base_diff_reset_and_effect_of/
Dec 19, 2019 - Shoreline_tradingbot version 1.0 is released https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5121953.msg53391184#msg53391184
Sept 1, 2019 - NewEnglandcoin (NENG) is Selected as Shoreline Tradingbot First Supported Coin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52331201#msg52331201
Aug 15, 2019 - Mining Update on Effect of Base Difficulty Reset, GPU vs ASIC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52169572#msg52169572
Jul 7, 2019 - CPU Mining on macOS Mojave is supported under latest Cheetah_Cpuminer Release https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg51745839#msg51745839
Jun 1, 2019 - NENG Fiat project is stopped by Square, Inc https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg51312291#msg51312291
Apr 21, 2019 - NENG Fiat Project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50714764#msg50714764
Apr 7, 2019 - Announcement of Fiat Project for all U.S. Residents & Mobile Miner Project Initiation https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50506585#msg50506585
Apr 1, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50417196#msg50417196
Mar 27, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50332097#msg50332097
Mar 17, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50208194#msg50208194
Feb 26, 2019 - Community Project - NewEnglandcoin Graphic Redesign Bounty Initiated https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49931305#msg49931305
Feb 22, 2019 - Dev Policy on Checkpoints on NewEnglandcoin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49875242#msg49875242
Feb 20, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.1 Released to Secure the Hard Kork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49831059#msg49831059
Feb 11, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.0 Released, Anti-51% Attack, Anti-instant Mining after Hard Fork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49685389#msg49685389
Jan 13, 2019 - Cheetah_CpuMiner added support for CPU Mining on Mac https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49218760#msg49218760
Jan 12, 2019 - NENG Core v1.1.2 Released to support MacOS OSX Wallet https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49202088#msg49202088
Jan 2, 2019 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.1.0 is released for both Linux and Windows https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49004345#msg49004345
Dec 31, 2018 - Technical Whitepaper is Released https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48990334#msg48990334
Dec 28, 2018 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.0.0 is released for Linux https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48935135#msg48935135
Update on Dec 14, 2018 - NENG Blockchain Stuck Issue https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48668375#msg48668375
Nov 27, 2018 - Exclusive for PC CPU Miners - How to Steal a Block from ASIC Miners https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48258465#msg48258465
Nov 28, 2018 - How to CPU Mine a NENG block with window/linux PC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48298311#msg48298311
Nov 29, 2018 - A Warning to ASIC Miners https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48324708#msg48324708
Disclosure: Dev Team Came from ShorelineCrypto, a US based Informatics Service Business offering Fee for service for Coin Creation, Coin Exchange Listing, Blockchain Consulting, etc.
submitted by honglu69 to NewEnglandCoin [link] [comments]

What is an ICO? How to identify scam ICO’s

What is an ICO?
ICO (short for Initial Coin Offering) is a form of fundraising that is quite common in digital cryptocurrency projects (Cryptocurrency). When a company or group issues their cryptocurrency, they usually create a certain amount of digital tokens and sell these digital tokens to investors in many different crowd sale waves. Usually, developers will accept payments in Bitcoin or Ethereum.
This means that you will find and buy coins/digital tokens that are in the preparation stage of being released to the public when it has an extremely low value. And when those coins/digital tokens go public, if it's really good, it will multiply many times to help you increase your assets.
How to identify scam ICO’s?
Anonymous or inexperienced team
Knowing who is on the team behind a blockchain project can be the most important step in working with your due diligence. Even when the addressable market (a quick measure of the underlying potential of a product/service opportunity) and the firm's real estate seem attractive, one of the factors. The biggest determinant of an enterprise's success is its team composition.
Usually, if the team behind the ICO doesn't have any reputable full-time developers, that's a warning. You should be even more cautious if no one on the team has specialized knowledge in a particular industry. You must also verify that the group counselors comply with the law. Advisory lists are also often listed on the website.
Twitter and LinkedIn platforms will help find team members, advise, and evaluating their experience. However, it's important to note that your test may still fail because the profiles are tampered with. If team members claim a previous partnership with a company or university, check again with reputable third-party sources (e.g company website or university newspaper) to know the truth.
Usually, ICO projects list their development and funding goals on a clear timeline for investors to see. The lack of a clear roadmap suggests that the development team does not have a long-term plan for the project, so the team's main driver may be short-term financial returns. This sign, along with the large pre-mine reserve for the development team, are strong warnings that the ICO project is not worth your money on escrow.
Usually, ICO projects will have Slack or Telegram channels exclusively for the public to participate in. Potential investors can understand how the project has evolved through monthly updates on these channels. I have seen a project named Goldario GLD TOKEN which whitepaper defines all the information about the project and behind this project, there is a network of successful businesses of Gold and Emerald Mining with established infrastructure in Brazil including G44 SA Brazil, Cutting and Polishing Center, Jewellery Factory, Vert Vivant as Jewellery Brand, and Inoex Exchange.

Get Started with Goldario Today!
REGISTER NOW:https://office.goldario.com/register?locale=en&user_id=zamora
Website:https://goldario.com/
White Paper:https://goldario.com/goldario-white-paper.pdf
For more detail contact with us via these social links:
Telegram:https://t.me/GoldarioOfficial
FaceBook:https://www.facebook.com/goldario.token/?_rdc=3&_rdr
Facebook Group:https://www.facebook.com/groups/1161231074249303/
Twitter:https://twitter.com/GoldarioToken/
YouTube:https://www.youtube.com/c/goldario
LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/company/goldario/
Pinterest:https://www.pinterest.com/goldariotoken/
instagram:https://www.instagram.com/goldariotoken/
Medium:https://medium.com/@GoldarioToken
Tumblr:https://www.tumblr.com/blog/goldariotoken
Reddit:https://www.reddit.com/useGoldarioToken
Stay tuned with us and know about all updates!
#goldario #GoldarioGLDToken #GoldarioICO #G44Brasil #GoldarioDigitalShare #GoldarioG44Brasil #GoldarioG44Mineração #G44SABrasil #G44BrasilMineração #SaleemAhmedZaheer #g44scam #g44brasilscam #g44brasillegit #g44legit
submitted by GoldarioGLDToken to u/GoldarioGLDToken [link] [comments]

Crypto history, part 2

Crypto history, part 2
So, we have already discussed the prerequisites for the creation of electronic currencies, as well as the appearance of the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. Today we will continue with this story.
According to Satoshi himself, the idea of ​​creating Bitcoin came to him in 2007. The announcement of the algorithm took place on October 31, 2008, when Satoshi published a «white paper» of bitcoin through the use of electronic mailing lists and sent it to all the addresses contained in the cypherpunk address book. When explaining the letter, he indicated that he had developed a peer-to-peer electronic money system, through which transactions could be performed directly but anonymously between the participants
Satoshi called Bitcoin «e-cash» or «electronic cash». Later, in 2011, Forbes magazine published an article entitled «Crypto currency» dedicated to Bitcoin, after which the term «cryptocurrency» became common place for such systems.
After the Electronic mailing, Satoshi and the cryptographers who joined him began work on the creation of a «client». In January 2009, Bitcoin 0.1 version was launched. Satoshi’s computer became the first «node», Hal Finney was the second to connect to the Blockchain network. In January the same year, the first block of coins was generated and the first transaction made. Satoshi had sent 10 bitcoins to Hal.
In September 2009, the first exchange of bitcoin for real money was made — user Martti Malmi received $ 5.02 for 5050 bitcoins from user ‘NewLibertyStandard’ via PayPal. In fact, this transaction was both a purchase and a sale. In October, the bitcoin exchange rate was determined by multiplying the average computing power used to obtain one coin multiplied by the cost of electricity in the United States, and thus, 1309 bitcoins could be bought for $ 1.
In November 2009, a forum was created on the website bitcoin.org where bitcoin enthusiasts could communicate with one another. With the growth in the number of nodes, the complexity of mining had increased, which in turn necessitated the search for newer ways to mine coins. Instead of mining using a CPU, Users began using the GPUs on video cards to improve the efficiency of their devices. During the same period, the user ArtForz created the first mining farm, which was a combination of several video cards constantly engaged in the mining process.
On July 17, 2010, the first digital currency exchange’ MtGox’ was created. Only 10 years later with the help of NeuronChain, the first digital currency exchange NeuronEx was created which allows users to make digital transactions of not only cryptocurrency, but fiat money!
Now all of the most popular digital currencies are available to transactions on NeuronEx — BTC, BCH, ETH, ETC, LTC, DASH, XRP, Dogecoin, EMC, EOS, BCH, BSV, EURT, USDT, CNHT, XAUT, as well as its own Neuron Coin — NRON.

https://preview.redd.it/4lz79yjgevn51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=71467a05fae88c600f86c2380f9cd4aedcfa5802
#Finance #NeuronChain #blockchain #NeuronEx #NeuronWallet #CryptoNeuroNews #crypto
submitted by LadyMariann to NeuronChain [link] [comments]

Coinbase Complaint Number☎️ 1844-699-6794 ☎️||| Coinbase Contact US || YTUJHJHHGJ

Coinbase Complaint Number☎️ 1844-699-6794 ☎️||| Coinbase Contact US || YTUJHJHHGJ
Coinbase Complaint Number☎️ 1844-699-6794 ☎️||| Coinbase Contact US || YTUJHJHHGJ
Coinbase Complaint Number☎️ 1844-699-6794 ☎️||| Coinbase Contact US || YTUJHJHHGJ
Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 CEO Changpeng "CZ" Zhao really doesn't want to tell you where his firm's headquarters is located. #@$#@YUYIUO
To kick off ConsenSys' Ethereal Summit on Thursday, Unchained Podcast host Laura Shin held a cozy fireside chat with Zhao who, to mark the occasion, was wearing a personalized football shirt emblazoned with the Coinbase pro support number 1844-699-6794 brand.
Scheduled for 45 minutes, Zhao spent most of it explaining how libra and China's digital yuan were unlikely to be competitors to existing stablecoin providers; how Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794's smart chain wouldn't tread on Ethereum's toes – "that depends on the definition of competing," he said – and how Coinbase pro support number 1844-699-6794 had an incentive to keep its newly acquired CoinMarketCap independent from the exchange.
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There were only five minutes left on the clock. Zhao was looking confident; he had just batted away a thorny question about an ongoing lawsuit. It was looking like the home stretch.
Then it hit. Shin asked the one question Zhao really didn't want to have to answer, but many want to know: Where is Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794's headquarters?
This seemingly simple question is actually more complex. Until February, Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 was considered to be based in Malta. That changed when the island European nation announced that, no, Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 is not under its jurisdiction. Since then Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 has not said just where, exactly, it is now headquartered.
Little wonder that when asked Zhao reddened; he stammered. He looked off-camera, possibly to an aide. "Well, I think what this is is the beauty of the blockchain, right, so you don't have to ... like where's the Bitcoin office, because Bitcoin doesn't have an office," he said.
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The line trailed off, then inspiration hit. "What kind of horse is a car?" Zhao asked. Coinbase support Service number 1844-699-6794 has loads of offices, he continued, with staff in 50 countries. It was a new type of organization that doesn't need registered bank accounts and postal addresses.
"Wherever I sit, is going to be the Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 office. Wherever I need somebody, is going to be the Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 office," he said.
Zhao may have been hoping the host would move onto something easier. But Shin wasn't finished: "But even to do things like to handle, you know, taxes for your employees, like, I think you need a registered business entity, so like why are you obfuscating it, why not just be open about it like, you know, the headquarters is registered in this place, why not just say that?"
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Coinbase Pro Helpline Number Zhao glanced away again, possibly at the person behind the camera. Their program had less than two minutes remaining. "It's not that we don't want to admit it, it's not that we want to obfuscate it or we want to kind of hide it. We're not hiding, we're in the open," he said.
Shin interjected: "What are you saying that you're already some kind of DAO [decentralized autonomous organization]? I mean what are you saying? Because it's not the old way [having a headquarters], it's actually the current way ... I actually don't know what you are or what you're claiming to be."
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Zhao said Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 isn't a traditional company, more a large team of people "that works together for a common goal." He added: "To be honest, if we classified as a DAO, then there's going to be a lot of debate about why we're not a DAO. So I don't want to go there, either."
"I mean nobody would call you guys a DAO," Shin said, likely disappointed that this wasn't the interview where Zhao made his big reveal.
Time was up. For an easy question to close, Shin asked where Zhao was working from during the coronavirus pandemic.
"I'm in Asia," Zhao said. The blank white wall behind him didn't provide any clues about where in Asia he might be. Shin asked if he could say which country – after all, it's the Earth's largest continent.
"I prefer not to disclose that. I think that's my own privacy," he cut in, ending the interview.
It was a provocative way to start the biggest cryptocurrency and blockchain event of the year.
Coinbase Support Number
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Coinbase Pro Helpline Number In the opening session of Consensus: Distributed this week, Lawrence Summers was asked by my co-host Naomi Brockwell about protecting people’s privacy once currencies go digital. His answer: “I think the problems we have now with money involve too much privacy.”
President Clinton’s former Treasury secretary, now President Emeritus at Harvard, referenced the 500-euro note, which bore the nickname “The Bin Laden,” to argue the un-traceability of cash empowers wealthy criminals to finance themselves. “Of all the important freedoms,” he continued, “the ability to possess, transfer and do business with multi-million dollar sums of money anonymously seems to me to be one of the least important.” Summers ended the segment by saying that “if I have provoked others, I will have served my purpose.”
You’re reading Money Reimagined, a weekly look at the technological, economic and social events and trends that are redefining our relationship with money and transforming the global financial system. You can subscribe to this and all of CoinDesk’s newsletters here.
That he did. Among the more than 20,000 registered for the weeklong virtual experience was a large contingent of libertarian-minded folks who see state-backed monitoring of their money as an affront to their property rights.
But with due respect to a man who has had prodigious influence on international economic policymaking, it’s not wealthy bitcoiners for whom privacy matters. It matters for all humanity and, most importantly, for the poor.
Now, as the world grapples with how to collect and disseminate public health information in a way that both saves lives and preserves civil liberties, the principle of privacy deserves to be elevated in importance.
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Just this week, the U.S. Senate voted to extend the 9/11-era Patriot Act and failed to pass a proposed amendment to prevent the Federal Bureau of Investigation from monitoring our online browsing without a warrant. Meanwhile, our heightened dependence on online social connections during COVID-19 isolation has further empowered a handful of internet platforms that are incorporating troves of our personal data into sophisticated predictive behavior models. This process of hidden control is happening right now, not in some future "Westworld"-like existence.
Digital currencies will only worsen this situation. If they are added to this comprehensive surveillance infrastructure, it could well spell the end of the civil liberties that underpin Western civilization.
Yes, freedom matters
Please don’t read this, Secretary Summers, as some privileged anti-taxation take or a self-interested what’s-mine-is-mine demand that “the government stay away from my money.”
Money is just the instrument here. What matters is whether our transactions, our exchanges of goods and services and the source of our economic and social value, should be monitored and manipulated by government and corporate owners of centralized databases. It’s why critics of China’s digital currency plans rightly worry about a “panopticon” and why, in the wake of the Cambridge Analytica scandal, there was an initial backlash against Facebook launching its libra currency.
Writers such as Shoshana Zuboff and Jared Lanier have passionately argued that our subservience to the hidden algorithms of what I like to call “GoogAzonBook” is diminishing our free will. Resisting that is important, not just to preserve the ideal of “the self” but also to protect the very functioning of society.
Markets, for one, are pointless without free will. In optimizing resource allocation, they presume autonomy among those who make up the market. Free will, which I’ll define as the ability to lawfully transact on my own terms without knowingly or unknowingly acting in someone else’s interests to my detriment, is a bedrock of market democracies. Without a sufficient right to privacy, it disintegrates – and in the digital age, that can happen very rapidly.
Also, as I’ve argued elsewhere, losing privacy undermines the fungibility of money. Each digital dollar should be substitutable for another. If our transactions carry a history and authorities can target specific notes or tokens for seizure because of their past involvement in illicit activity, then some dollars become less valuable than other dollars.
The excluded
But to fully comprehend the harm done by encroachments into financial privacy, look to the world’s poor.
An estimated 1.7 billion adults are denied a bank account because they can’t furnish the information that banks’ anti-money laundering (AML) officers need, either because their government’s identity infrastructure is untrusted or because of the danger to them of furnishing such information to kleptocratic regimes. Unable to let banks monitor them, they’re excluded from the global economy’s dominant payment and savings system – victims of a system that prioritizes surveillance over privacy.
Misplaced priorities also contribute to the “derisking” problem faced by Caribbean and Latin American countries, where investment inflows have slowed and financial costs have risen in the past decade. America’s gatekeeping correspondent banks, fearful of heavy fines like the one imposed on HSBC for its involvement in a money laundering scandal, have raised the bar on the kind of personal information that regional banks must obtain from their local clients.
And where’s the payoff? Despite this surveillance system, the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that between $800 billion and $2 trillion, or 2%-5% of global gross domestic product, is laundered annually worldwide. The Panama Papers case shows how the rich and powerful easily use lawyers, shell companies, tax havens and transaction obfuscation to get around surveillance. The poor are just excluded from the system.
Caring about privacy
Solutions are coming that wouldn’t require abandoning law enforcement efforts. Self-sovereign identity models and zero-knowledge proofs, for example, grant control over data to the individuals who generate it, allowing them to provide sufficient proof of a clean record without revealing sensitive personal information. But such innovations aren’t getting nearly enough attention.
Few officials inside developed country regulatory agencies seem to acknowledge the cost of cutting off 1.7 billion poor from the financial system. Yet, their actions foster poverty and create fertile conditions for terrorism and drug-running, the very crimes they seek to contain. The reaction to evidence of persistent money laundering is nearly always to make bank secrecy laws even more demanding. Exhibit A: Europe’s new AML 5 directive.
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To be sure, in the Consensus discussion that followed the Summers interview, it was pleasing to hear another former U.S. official take a more accommodative view of privacy. Former Commodities and Futures Trading Commission Chairman Christopher Giancarlo said that “getting the privacy balance right” is a “design imperative” for the digital dollar concept he is actively promoting.
But to hold both governments and corporations to account on that design, we need an aware, informed public that recognizes the risks of ceding their civil liberties to governments or to GoogAzonBook.
Let’s talk about this, people.
A missing asterisk
Control for all variables. At the end of the day, the dollar’s standing as the world’s reserve currency ultimately comes down to how much the rest of the world trusts the United States to continue its de facto leadership of the world economy. In the past, that assessment was based on how well the U.S. militarily or otherwise dealt with human- and state-led threats to international commerce such as Soviet expansionism or terrorism. But in the COVID-19 era only one thing matters: how well it is leading the fight against the pandemic.
So if you’ve already seen the charts below and you’re wondering what they’re doing in a newsletter about the battle for the future of money, that’s why. They were inspired by a staged White House lawn photo-op Tuesday, where President Trump was flanked by a huge banner that dealt quite literally with a question of American leadership. It read, “America Leads the World in Testing.” That’s a claim that’s technically correct, but one that surely demands a big red asterisk. When you’re the third-largest country by population – not to mention the richest – having the highest number of tests is not itself much of an achievement. The claim demands a per capita adjustment. Here’s how things look, first in absolute terms, then adjusted for tests per million inhabitants.
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Coinbase Phone support number 1844-699-6794 has frozen funds linked to Upbit’s prior $50 million data breach after the hackers tried to liquidate a part of the gains. In a recent tweet, Whale Alert warned Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 that a transaction of 137 ETH (about $28,000) had moved from an address linked to the Upbit hacker group to its wallets.
Less than an hour after the transaction was flagged, Changpeng Zhao, the CEO of Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794, announced that the exchange had frozen the funds. He also added that Coinbase Helpline support number 1844-699-6794 is getting in touch with Upbit to investigate the transaction. In November 2019, Upbit suffered an attack in which hackers stole 342,000 ETH, accounting for approximately $50 million. The hackers managed to take the funds by transferring the ETH from Upbit’s hot wallet to an anonymous crypto address.
Coinbase Complaint Number☎️ 1844-699-6794 ☎️||| Coinbase Contact US || YTUJHJHHGJ
Coinbase Complaint Number☎️ 1844-699-6794 ☎️||| Coinbase Contact US || YTUJHJHHGJ
Coinbase Complaint Number☎️ 1844-699-6794 ☎️||| Coinbase Contact US || YTUJHJHHGJ
Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 CEO Changpeng "CZ" Zhao really doesn't want to tell you where his firm's headquarters is located. #@$#@YUYIUO
To kick off ConsenSys' Ethereal Summit on Thursday, Unchained Podcast host Laura Shin held a cozy fireside chat with Zhao who, to mark the occasion, was wearing a personalized football shirt emblazoned with the Coinbase pro support number 1844-699-6794 brand.
Scheduled for 45 minutes, Zhao spent most of it explaining how libra and China's digital yuan were unlikely to be competitors to existing stablecoin providers; how Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794's smart chain wouldn't tread on Ethereum's toes – "that depends on the definition of competing," he said – and how Coinbase pro support number 1844-699-6794 had an incentive to keep its newly acquired CoinMarketCap independent from the exchange.
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There were only five minutes left on the clock. Zhao was looking confident; he had just batted away a thorny question about an ongoing lawsuit. It was looking like the home stretch.
Then it hit. Shin asked the one question Zhao really didn't want to have to answer, but many want to know: Where is Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794's headquarters?
This seemingly simple question is actually more complex. Until February, Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 was considered to be based in Malta. That changed when the island European nation announced that, no, Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 is not under its jurisdiction. Since then Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 has not said just where, exactly, it is now headquartered.
Little wonder that when asked Zhao reddened; he stammered. He looked off-camera, possibly to an aide. "Well, I think what this is is the beauty of the blockchain, right, so you don't have to ... like where's the Bitcoin office, because Bitcoin doesn't have an office," he said.
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The line trailed off, then inspiration hit. "What kind of horse is a car?" Zhao asked. Coinbase support Service number 1844-699-6794 has loads of offices, he continued, with staff in 50 countries. It was a new type of organization that doesn't need registered bank accounts and postal addresses.
"Wherever I sit, is going to be the Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 office. Wherever I need somebody, is going to be the Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 office," he said.
Zhao may have been hoping the host would move onto something easier. But Shin wasn't finished: "But even to do things like to handle, you know, taxes for your employees, like, I think you need a registered business entity, so like why are you obfuscating it, why not just be open about it like, you know, the headquarters is registered in this place, why not just say that?"
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Coinbase Pro Helpline Number Zhao glanced away again, possibly at the person behind the camera. Their program had less than two minutes remaining. "It's not that we don't want to admit it, it's not that we want to obfuscate it or we want to kind of hide it. We're not hiding, we're in the open," he said.
Shin interjected: "What are you saying that you're already some kind of DAO [decentralized autonomous organization]? I mean what are you saying? Because it's not the old way [having a headquarters], it's actually the current way ... I actually don't know what you are or what you're claiming to be."
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Zhao said Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 isn't a traditional company, more a large team of people "that works together for a common goal." He added: "To be honest, if we classified as a DAO, then there's going to be a lot of debate about why we're not a DAO. So I don't want to go there, either."
"I mean nobody would call you guys a DAO," Shin said, likely disappointed that this wasn't the interview where Zhao made his big reveal.
Time was up. For an easy question to close, Shin asked where Zhao was working from during the coronavirus pandemic.
"I'm in Asia," Zhao said. The blank white wall behind him didn't provide any clues about where in Asia he might be. Shin asked if he could say which country – after all, it's the Earth's largest continent.
"I prefer not to disclose that. I think that's my own privacy," he cut in, ending the interview.
It was a provocative way to start the biggest cryptocurrency and blockchain event of the year.
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Coinbase Pro Helpline Number In the opening session of Consensus: Distributed this week, Lawrence Summers was asked by my co-host Naomi Brockwell about protecting people’s privacy once currencies go digital. His answer: “I think the problems we have now with money involve too much privacy.”
President Clinton’s former Treasury secretary, now President Emeritus at Harvard, referenced the 500-euro note, which bore the nickname “The Bin Laden,” to argue the un-traceability of cash empowers wealthy criminals to finance themselves. “Of all the important freedoms,” he continued, “the ability to possess, transfer and do business with multi-million dollar sums of money anonymously seems to me to be one of the least important.” Summers ended the segment by saying that “if I have provoked others, I will have served my purpose.”
You’re reading Money Reimagined, a weekly look at the technological, economic and social events and trends that are redefining our relationship with money and transforming the global financial system. You can subscribe to this and all of CoinDesk’s newsletters here.
That he did. Among the more than 20,000 registered for the weeklong virtual experience was a large contingent of libertarian-minded folks who see state-backed monitoring of their money as an affront to their property rights.
But with due respect to a man who has had prodigious influence on international economic policymaking, it’s not wealthy bitcoiners for whom privacy matters. It matters for all humanity and, most importantly, for the poor.
Now, as the world grapples with how to collect and disseminate public health information in a way that both saves lives and preserves civil liberties, the principle of privacy deserves to be elevated in importance.
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Just this week, the U.S. Senate voted to extend the 9/11-era Patriot Act and failed to pass a proposed amendment to prevent the Federal Bureau of Investigation from monitoring our online browsing without a warrant. Meanwhile, our heightened dependence on online social connections during COVID-19 isolation has further empowered a handful of internet platforms that are incorporating troves of our personal data into sophisticated predictive behavior models. This process of hidden control is happening right now, not in some future "Westworld"-like existence.
Digital currencies will only worsen this situation. If they are added to this comprehensive surveillance infrastructure, it could well spell the end of the civil liberties that underpin Western civilization.
Yes, freedom matters
Please don’t read this, Secretary Summers, as some privileged anti-taxation take or a self-interested what’s-mine-is-mine demand that “the government stay away from my money.”
Money is just the instrument here. What matters is whether our transactions, our exchanges of goods and services and the source of our economic and social value, should be monitored and manipulated by government and corporate owners of centralized databases. It’s why critics of China’s digital currency plans rightly worry about a “panopticon” and why, in the wake of the Cambridge Analytica scandal, there was an initial backlash against Facebook launching its libra currency.
Writers such as Shoshana Zuboff and Jared Lanier have passionately argued that our subservience to the hidden algorithms of what I like to call “GoogAzonBook” is diminishing our free will. Resisting that is important, not just to preserve the ideal of “the self” but also to protect the very functioning of society.
Markets, for one, are pointless without free will. In optimizing resource allocation, they presume autonomy among those who make up the market. Free will, which I’ll define as the ability to lawfully transact on my own terms without knowingly or unknowingly acting in someone else’s interests to my detriment, is a bedrock of market democracies. Without a sufficient right to privacy, it disintegrates – and in the digital age, that can happen very rapidly.
Also, as I’ve argued elsewhere, losing privacy undermines the fungibility of money. Each digital dollar should be substitutable for another. If our transactions carry a history and authorities can target specific notes or tokens for seizure because of their past involvement in illicit activity, then some dollars become less valuable than other dollars.
The excluded
But to fully comprehend the harm done by encroachments into financial privacy, look to the world’s poor.
An estimated 1.7 billion adults are denied a bank account because they can’t furnish the information that banks’ anti-money laundering (AML) officers need, either because their government’s identity infrastructure is untrusted or because of the danger to them of furnishing such information to kleptocratic regimes. Unable to let banks monitor them, they’re excluded from the global economy’s dominant payment and savings system – victims of a system that prioritizes surveillance over privacy.
Misplaced priorities also contribute to the “derisking” problem faced by Caribbean and Latin American countries, where investment inflows have slowed and financial costs have risen in the past decade. America’s gatekeeping correspondent banks, fearful of heavy fines like the one imposed on HSBC for its involvement in a money laundering scandal, have raised the bar on the kind of personal information that regional banks must obtain from their local clients.
And where’s the payoff? Despite this surveillance system, the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that between $800 billion and $2 trillion, or 2%-5% of global gross domestic product, is laundered annually worldwide. The Panama Papers case shows how the rich and powerful easily use lawyers, shell companies, tax havens and transaction obfuscation to get around surveillance. The poor are just excluded from the system.
Caring about privacy
Solutions are coming that wouldn’t require abandoning law enforcement efforts. Self-sovereign identity models and zero-knowledge proofs, for example, grant control over data to the individuals who generate it, allowing them to provide sufficient proof of a clean record without revealing sensitive personal information. But such innovations aren’t getting nearly enough attention.
Few officials inside developed country regulatory agencies seem to acknowledge the cost of cutting off 1.7 billion poor from the financial system. Yet, their actions foster poverty and create fertile conditions for terrorism and drug-running, the very crimes they seek to contain. The reaction to evidence of persistent money laundering is nearly always to make bank secrecy laws even more demanding. Exhibit A: Europe’s new AML 5 directive.
Coinbase Support Number
Coinbase Pro Support Number
Coinbase Helpline Number
Coinbase Customer Service Number
Coinbase Compailnt Number
Coinbase Pro Helpline Number
To be sure, in the Consensus discussion that followed the Summers interview, it was pleasing to hear another former U.S. official take a more accommodative view of privacy. Former Commodities and Futures Trading Commission Chairman Christopher Giancarlo said that “getting the privacy balance right” is a “design imperative” for the digital dollar concept he is actively promoting.
But to hold both governments and corporations to account on that design, we need an aware, informed public that recognizes the risks of ceding their civil liberties to governments or to GoogAzonBook.
Let’s talk about this, people.
A missing asterisk
Control for all variables. At the end of the day, the dollar’s standing as the world’s reserve currency ultimately comes down to how much the rest of the world trusts the United States to continue its de facto leadership of the world economy. In the past, that assessment was based on how well the U.S. militarily or otherwise dealt with human- and state-led threats to international commerce such as Soviet expansionism or terrorism. But in the COVID-19 era only one thing matters: how well it is leading the fight against the pandemic.
So if you’ve already seen the charts below and you’re wondering what they’re doing in a newsletter about the battle for the future of money, that’s why. They were inspired by a staged White House lawn photo-op Tuesday, where President Trump was flanked by a huge banner that dealt quite literally with a question of American leadership. It read, “America Leads the World in Testing.” That’s a claim that’s technically correct, but one that surely demands a big red asterisk. When you’re the third-largest country by population – not to mention the richest – having the highest number of tests is not itself much of an achievement. The claim demands a per capita adjustment. Here’s how things look, first in absolute terms, then adjusted for tests per million inhabitants.
Coinbase Support Number
Coinbase Pro Support Number
Coinbase Helpline Number
Coinbase Customer Service Number
Coinbase Compailnt Number
Coinbase Pro Helpline Number
Coinbase Phone support number 1844-699-6794 has frozen funds linked to Upbit’s prior $50 million data breach after the hackers tried to liquidate a part of the gains. In a recent tweet, Whale Alert warned Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794 that a transaction of 137 ETH (about $28,000) had moved from an address linked to the Upbit hacker group to its wallets.
Less than an hour after the transaction was flagged, Changpeng Zhao, the CEO of Coinbase support number 1844-699-6794, announced that the exchange had frozen the funds. He also added that Coinbase Helpline support number 1844-699-6794 is getting in touch with Upbit to investigate the transaction. In November 2019, Upbit suffered an attack in which hackers stole 342,000 ETH, accounting for approximately $50 million. The hackers managed to take the funds by transferring the ETH from Upbit’s hot wallet to an anonymous crypto address.
submitted by Beautiful_Implement7 to u/Beautiful_Implement7 [link] [comments]

The DeFis Yearn (DSY) public chain is about to launch. Another blockchain world’s myth is about to be born!

The DeFis Yearn (DSY) public chain is about to launch. Another blockchain world’s myth is about to be born!
1. What is DeFis Yearn (DSY)?
According to the official introduction, DSY is based on the Ethereum (ETH, Ethereum) developed by Vitalik Buterin. It has improved and added DPoS master node network, side chain network, anonymous transaction, DeFi efficiency performance optimization and added POC as a block Encrypted digital currency with multiple new functions such as chain data storage.
The goal of DeFis Yearn is to build a world-type distributed computer system developed and governed spontaneously by the community. Following this vision, our platform will allow the creation of blockchain applications to be given the possibility of keeping application data private. This will be possible through a series of "zero-knowledge" encryption tools, which will become possible to be made usable. Combining revolutionary technology, DSY integrates three functions that operate independently in the traditional sense. They are: transaction, communication and competitive governance to accelerate innovation. With the help of blockchain technology and computing infrastructure technology that can be distributed across the world, this innovation process can be carried out in a safe and anonymous manner. The system integrates a number of first-class technologies and provides an open platform for innovative development that is not restricted by permissions and can flexibly adapt to user preferences.

https://preview.redd.it/j0ohsvxz5an51.png?width=553&format=png&auto=webp&s=17116221a1ce6670716d1512f48ce8fd00d8e5ee
2. What pain points does DeFis Yearn (DSY) solve?
Putting DeFis Yearn (DSY) on the mainstream public chains in the blockchain world, DeFis Yearn is undoubtedly the most avant-garde and has great explosive potential. This is embodied in that DeFis Yearn has broken through the bottleneck of the current public chain in many aspects. . From the perspective of the functional properties of currencies, the anonymous transfer technology created by DeFis Yearn has well complemented the privacy flaws of most digital currencies on the market. Secondly, from the perspective of the design of the public chain consensus mechanism, DSY adopts the POW+DPOS+POC fusion consensus mechanism. First of all, the POW mechanism is similar to the current mainstream currencies BTC, ETH, etc., which are intended to be protected and guaranteed by computing power Digital currency has a good and fair distribution mechanism, and the POW currency distribution mechanism is still the most scientific at present.
However, the POW mechanism has a huge disadvantage, that is, each transfer requires more nodes to confirm, which leads to the problem of slow transfer speed of the POW mechanism digital currency. In the long run, the number of users of digital currency is gradually increasing over time, and digital currency with a pure POW mechanism will eventually be unable to carry the increasing number of users in the later stage. Bitcoin in 2017 and Ethereum today are both encountering This kind of crisis, as a currency digital currency, the core value of its currency is gradually collapsing. When a currency transfer requires an extremely expensive fee and it takes a long time to arrive, it can no longer be called a good currency. , Let alone compete with other types of currencies, because the poor transfer experience will gradually drive away existing digital currency users.

https://preview.redd.it/hovsbj226an51.png?width=553&format=png&auto=webp&s=558b0004f606c8533d0c4bfa78b87462ce9ce17f
So, can this problem be solved? Of course, thanks to the emergence of the DPOS consensus mechanism, DPOS was born to improve the transfer speed bottleneck of POW. DPOS has a theoretical million-level TPS and is currently the only consensus mechanism that can carry large-scale commercial and massive users. This is why DeFis Yearn (DSY) introduces the DPOS consensus mechanism. In the early stage of DSY operation through POW, it provides computing power protection and a good currency distribution mechanism for DSY. After the market has a certain amount of currency in circulation, the DPOS mechanism is introduced to solve the transfer bottleneck of the pure POW mechanism and solve the POW mechanism that has been criticized. The problem. In addition, according to DSY official data, DSY will adopt the DAO decentralized governance mechanism, which is by far the most efficient governance mechanism. It can pave the way for DSY in the rapid development of the blockchain world. Turn off the highway.

https://preview.redd.it/0vn62zn36an51.png?width=447&format=png&auto=webp&s=8a48ebe90bd13c54c04db3c4925e87913308989f
Since the POW+DPOS mechanism is so perfect, why should we introduce the POC mechanism to achieve the integration of the three consensus mechanisms of POW+DPOS+POC? The reason is simple. There is still a problem with the POW mechanism, which is meaningless energy consumption. POC not only solves the problem of energy consumption, but also provides users with the function of decentralized storage. POC gives miners the value of existence and contribution to human society in a true sense. In addition, the integration of the POC mechanism can effectively increase the gold content of the DSY public chain, so that in addition to the text information of the transfer, the DSY chain also carries various forms of content. At that time, DSY has an excellent privacy protection mechanism in terms of currency attributes. ——Anonymous transfer, which can carry various ecological DAPPs and provide content storage based on the properties of the blockchain. It is a decentralized encrypted storage navigation system and a decentralized program operation system, which greatly increases the gold content of the DSY public chain , Which also enables all DSY holders to enjoy the dividends brought by the ecological development of the chain.
Does DSY plan to implement currency applications in the real world?
In fact, offline payment is a pain point that all digital currencies cannot solve. After all, there is a certain gap between digital currencies and legal currencies. But fortunately, as can be seen from the project development route in the official DSY white paper, DSY will implement offline payment functions and will support payment through the world's largest legal currency payment institution-PayPal. In addition to international payment tools, DSY also supports offline payments in some local areas, such ascommonly used in IndiaPaytm Paytm, Yandex.Money in Russia, WeChat and Alipay in China, etc. Users can use DSY decentralized wallet to directly complete offline fiat currency scan code payment, DSY will automatically convert the corresponding fiat currency amount to pay to the other party. This feature will undoubtedly be a phenomenon-level innovative application in the blockchain world in 2020.

https://preview.redd.it/4ei1t3n56an51.png?width=431&format=png&auto=webp&s=0380b319ef7edadbdabf559ec08b93456d35dac2
How to get DSY?
From the official information and development progress report, DeFis Yearn will first open a small number of DSY tokens for crowdfunding, and then complete the mainnet launch, so we can get DSY from several channels, whether through early crowdfunding , Mining or future exchange purchases. From the perspective of DSY's technological breakthrough and powerful offline application functions, DSY will undoubtedly bring a new round of impact to the blockchain world, and it is expected to cast another myth. This is mainly because the popularity of DSY mainnet is too high. , Has attracted the attention of a large number of domestic and foreign capitals, and everyone is looking forward to this moment. Under the multiple favorable circumstances, how strong DSY can perform, let us wait and see.

https://preview.redd.it/dpozm2z66an51.png?width=495&format=png&auto=webp&s=ce177696502ae833e56198863924c04c9e6601f9
submitted by BitRay2077 to u/BitRay2077 [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Anonymity Basics Lecture 6 — Bitcoin and Anonymity - YouTube Bitcoin Q&A: Fungibility, Privacy, Anonymity - YouTube Bitcoin Basics Podcast - Electronic Cash: Bitcoin White Paper (005) BITCOIN WHITE PAPER - BASICS - POW, DOUBLE SPENDING, P2P

The 10th anniversary of the Bitcoin white paper has officially passed, with it first being published by Satoshi Nakamoto on 31 October 2008, almost a week ago. While Bitcoin is widely-acknowledged as the first recognized cryptocurrency and a precursor to blockchain innovation, its technological mark on history is often overlooked. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System Satoshi Nakamoto [email protected] www.bitcoin.org Abstract. A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main Bitcoin Private, a supposed “fork-merge” of itcoin and Zclassic, is intended to add privacy and spendability to the Bitcoin blockchain while remaining cognizant of the challenges, choices, and failures of prior forks. To accomplish this, Bitcoin Private will use a larger block size (2 MB), a shorter block time (2.5 min), According to widely acknowledged history of origin of bitcoin system Nakamoto was a highly skilled scientist (or group of scientists) who have found a Niko’s designing concerning Bit Gold and thought up an idea of its improvement, he has published technical description of bitcoin and decided to embody it by designing of unique bitcoin customer. . Changing of date of publication of articles ... The white paper. Bitcoin is considered to be the first implementation of a concept referred to as crypto currency, which is a means of secure exchange of data, made possible by principles of cryptography. ... Thus, a more correct term to describe the anonymity of the system would be pseudo anonymity. Summary. In short, Bitcoin is a ...

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Bitcoin Anonymity Basics

Bitcoin Anonymity Basics - Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies Part 6 - Bitcoin and Anonymity Is Bitcoin anonymous? What does that statement even mean—can we define it rigorously? Please LIKE and SUBSCRIBE to keep all our educational content ad free :-) Click "SHOW MORE" below: #BitcoinBasics hosts Faris and Gordon are stuck in the rabbit hole of the #Bitcoin White Paper ... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue Please LIKE and SUBSCRIBE to keep all our educational content ad free :-) Click "SHOW MORE" below: Faris and Gordon are stuck in the rabbit hole of the ₿itcoin White Paper and explain Bitcoin's ... This short video explains why Bitcoin isn't completely anonymous. For more information visit http://99bitocins.com.

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